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Table 2. Predictors of offspring performance, including sucrose responsiveness, sucrose concentration, color training, and starvation resistance

From: Care-giver identity impacts offspring development and performance in an annually social bumble bee

Assay Analysis Model Estimate Standard error Test statistic p-value Direction
Sucrose responsiveness Binomial GLM Yes/No (1/0) ~
Development time
+ random factor “source colony”
+ random factor “nest ID”
0.198 0.105 z = 1.875 0.061 Longer > Shorter
durations
Sucrose concentration Gamma GLM Concentration response ~
+ random factor “source colony”
+ random factor “nest ID”
na na na na na
Color
training
Binomial GLM Yes/No (1/0) ~
Body size
+ random factor “source colony”
+ random factor “nest ID
2.200 1.289 z = 1.706 0.088 Large > Small
Color
learning
Binomial GLM Yes/No (1/0) ~
+ random factor “source colony”
+ random factor “nest ID”
na na na na na
Starvation resistance Gamma GLM Response (hours) ~
Group (care-giver)
+ Body size
+ random factor “source colony”
+ random factor “nest ID”
+ assays
− 0.185
0.149
0.071
0.082
z = − 2.602
z = 1.815
0.009 **
0.069
QR > WR
Large > Small
  1. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) for Binominal distribution was used in modeling data that had two possible outcomes (success or failure); and GLM for Gamma distribution was used in modeling non-integer data. Asterisks indicate statistical significance; significance code: ‘**’ 0.01