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Fig. 2 | BMC Ecology and Evolution

Fig. 2

From: Extensive non-redundancy in a recently duplicated developmental gene family

Fig. 2

Presence of middle body LR asymmetry defects in Wrt family knockdowns and knockouts. a Schematic of a wild-type worm in both dorsal and ventral views showing the gut/gonad asymmetry. b–e Wild-type images of the middle body where b and c are taken in the lefthand plane and d and e are taken in the righthand plane. Intestine (b and e) is recognisable for the large nuclei and the gonad (c and d) is most recognisable for being syncytial. fi wrt-2(ok2810) animals exhibiting defects in middle body LR asymmetry, where in f and h (lefthand plane) only intestine should be visible yet patches of gonad are observed. In g and i (righthand plane), only gonad should be visible, yet patches of gut are observed. Arrowheads indicate vulvas. Scale bars 50 μm. j % penetrance of LR defects upon knocking down a Wrt family member (x-axis). Empty vector control (L4440) animals displayed no defects in the positioning of their gut and gonads relative to one another (n = 51), nor did wrt-1 (n = 80); wrt-5 (n = 71); wrt-6 (n = 45); wrt-7 (n = 67); wrt-9 (n = 85) or wrt-10 (n = 59) RNAi animals. wrt-2 (n = 72), wrt-4 (n = 80) and wrt-8 (n = 56) RNAi animals did display LR asymmetric defects. wrt-3 knockdown results in animals with miniaturised or absent gonad arms and/or other disruptions to their middle body anatomy such that LR defects could not be quantified in wrt-3 defective animals (Additional file 8: Fig. 5). (K) % penetrance of LR defects in wild-type as compared to animals carrying the wrt-2(ok2810) allele (n = 65), the wrt-4(tm1911) allele (n = 108), the wrt-8(tm1585) allele (n = 68) or the following double/triple mutants: wrt-4(tm1911);wrt-2(ok2810) (n = 102); wrt-8(tm1585);wrt-2(ok2810) (n = 87); wrt-8(tm1585);wrt-4(tm1911) (n = 54); wrt-8(tm1585);wrt-4(tm1911);wrt-2(ok2810) (n = 103). Black bars show mean + SEM (J, K). Black asterisks (****P ≤ 0.0001, ***P ≤ 0.001, **P ≤ 0.01, *P ≤ 0.05, nsP > 0.05) show statistically significant differences in the means compared to Control RNAi with an unpaired t test (J) or in the means of Wrt mutants compared to WT with an unpaired t test (k)

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