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Table 4 Sample groups Switzerland (CH), France (FR), South-France (SFR, as putative point of origin) and Vienna (VIE) were tested for signs of a bottleneck by carrying out sign tests and two-tailed Wilcoxon tests. Observed expected heterozygosity (He) under HWI exceeded expected heterozygosity under mutation-drift equilibrium (Heq). Tests were all significant as values were below 0.01

From: Evidence for multiple introductions of an invasive wild bee species currently under rapid range expansion in Europe

Group Loci with H excess Sign test Two-tailed Wilcoxon-test
He Heq
CH 39 21.91 0.0000 0.0000
FR 36 23.13 0.0001 0.0000
SFR 36 21.37 0.0000 0.0000
VIE 23 15.81 0.0072 0.0062