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Fig. 5 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 5

From: Climatic and topographic changes since the Miocene influenced the diversification and biogeography of the tent tortoise (Psammobates tentorius) species complex in Southern Africa

Fig. 5

modified from Zachos et al. [6, 58]). a The mtDNA based dating results, b the mtDNA + nDNA based dating results. The interval of the diversification of P. tentorius highlighted in blue colour represents the re-establishment of major ice sheets due to cooling. The red spots symbolize the five calibration nodes from the literature used for the calibration dating analyses. Three grouping schemes: (1) The seven geographic regions defined by the SAMOVA analysis are indicated as “A–G”. The distribution of the seven clades, (2) the biome distribution, “1” represents the Nama Karoo, “2” = Succulent Karoo and “3” = Fynbos, (3) the regions separated by the critical barriers, “1” = north of the Great Escarpment (GE), “2” = region between GE and Swartberg Mountain (SM), “3” = south of the SM. The sample size of each clade was also given. Nodes n1–n9 represent the divergence events that the cladogenic diversification of the genus Psammobates involved. The posterior probabilities are indicated at each node in the P. tentorius species complex

The chronograms from the concatenated dataset generated from the BEAST Bayesian calibration dating analyses with a background temperature fluctuation diagram (

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