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Table 1 The 16 avian genomes used in this study

From: Avian phenotypic convergence is subject to low genetic constraints based on genomic evidence

Common name Scientific name Trait of interest References
Anna’s hummingbird Calypte anna Related to nightjarsa Zhang et al. [33]
Barn owl Tyto alba Nocturnality Zhang et al. [33]
Chuck-will’s-widow Antrostomus carolinensis (Caprimulgus carolinensis)b Nocturnality Zhang et al. [33]
Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus Foot-propelled diving Zhang et al. [33]
Red-throated loon Gavia stellata Foot-propelled diving Zhang et al. [33]
Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Foot-propelled diving Zhang et al. [33]
Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus Raptorial behavior Zhan et al. [75]
White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla Raptorial behavior Zhang et al. [33]
Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Raptorial behavior Zhang et al. [33]
Turkey vulture Cathartes aura Raptorial behavior Zhang et al. [33]
Zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata Related to falconsa Warren et al. [76]
Downy woodpecker Dryobates pubescens (Picoides pubescens)b Related to owlsa Zhang et al. [33]
Little egret Egretta garzetta Related to cormorantsa Zhang et al. [33]
American flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber Related to grebesa Zhang et al. [33]
Chicken Gallus gallus Outgroupa Wong et al. [77]
Ostrich Struthio camelus Outgroupa Zhang et al. [33]
  1. The “Trait of interest” column shows the convergent trait of each species, except for those marked with “a”, which indicate taxa that are closely related to the convergent taxa, or outgroups
  2. a Those species were chosen because they are closely related to species with traits of interest or were used as outgroups in analyses
  3. b The focal species’ old scientific name, which was used in the cited study