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Table 4 Known past and present terrestrial vertebrate clades on Madagascar, with time of arrival

From: Mid-Cenozoic climate change, extinction, and faunal turnover in Madagascar, and their bearing on the evolution of lemurs

Cretaceous clades Holocene clades
Ceratophryinae
Bothremydidae
Podocnemidaeb
Mahajangasuchidae
Notosuchia (twice)
Trematochampsidae
?Cordylidae
Dromaeosauridae
Madtsoiidae (twice)
Nigerophiidae
Abelisauridae
Noasauridae
Nemegtosauridae
Ornithurae
Marsupialia
Multituberculata
Sudamericidae
N = 19
Arrived pre E-O boundary Arrived post E-O boundary
Microhylidae (twice)
Mantellidae
Ranoideaa
Podocnemidaeb
Chamaeleonidae
Gerrhosauridae
Opluridae
Gekkonidaea
Scincidaea
Boidaea
Lamprophiidaea
Typhlopidae
Xenotyphlopidae
Aepyornithidae
Mesitornithidae
Phaethonidaea
Psittacidae (twice)
Lemuroideaa
Myzopodidaea
Nycteridaea
Plesiorycteropodidaea
Arrived during the Eocene or earlier: N = 23
Hyperoliidae
Ptychadenidae
Testudinae
Crocodylidae (twice)
Gekkonidae (twice)
Scincidae (twice)
Lamprophiidae (twice)
Acrocephalidae
Apodidae
Bernieridae
Campephagidae
Dicruridae
Motacillidae
Nectarinidae (twice)
Pycnonotidae
Strigidae
Sturnidae
Vangidae
Zosteropidae (twice)
Emballonuridaea (3 times)
Eupleridae
Hippopotamidae (twice)
Hipposideridaea (3 times)
Molossidae (> 6 times)
Nesomyinae
Pteropodidae (twice)
Vespertillionidaea (4 times)
Tenrecidae
Arrived during the Oligocene or later: N = 48
  1. aKnown (or close relative known) from Paleocene or Eocene deposits in Africa (see qualifier regarding Ranoidea, Table 1)
  2. bCretaceous and Holocene