Skip to main content

Table 2 Treatment and parental effects on larval traits. Likelihood ratio tests on mixed model regressions on (A) larval survival, (B) larval growth, and (C) yolk sac consumption of embryos exposed to EE2 or sham treated. Models including or lacking the term of interest were compared to reference models (in bold) to determine the significance of the effect tested

From: Low adaptive potential for tolerance to ethynylestradiol, but also low toxicity, in a grayling population (Thymallus thymallus)

Model Effect tested AIC d.f. χ2 P
(A) Larval survival
t + d + s   678 4   
 d + s t 679 3 2.6 0.11
 t + s d 996 3 320.2 < 0.001
 t + d s 678 3 2.1 0.14
 t + t|d + s t x d 680 6 2.2 0.33
 t + d + t|s t x s 682 6 0.3 0.86
(B) Larval growth
t + d + s   778 5   
 d + s t 781 4 4.5 0.03
 t + s d 840 4 64.0 < 0.001
 t + d s 780 4 3.4 0.06
 t + t|d + s t x d 782 7 0.1 0.93
 t + d + t|s t x s 784 7 < 0.1 1.0
(C) Yolk sac consumption
t + d + s   1479 5   
 d + s t 1481 4 4.0 0.05
 t + s d 1579 4 101.8 < 0.001
 t + d s 1477 4 < 0.1 1.0
 t + t|d + s t x d 1483 7 < 0.1 1.0
 t + d + t|s t x s 1483 7 < 0.1 1.0
  1. t treatment, s sire, d dam
  2. Significant p-values are emphasized in bold