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Table 1 Treatment and parental effects on embryo traits. Likelihood ratio tests on mixed model regressions on (A) embryo survival, (B) timing of hatching, and (C) length at hatching. Models including or lacking the term of interest were compared to reference models (in bold) to determine the significance of the effect tested

From: Low adaptive potential for tolerance to ethynylestradiol, but also low toxicity, in a grayling population (Thymallus thymallus)

Model Effect tested AIC d.f. χ2 P
(A) Embryo survival
t + d + s   1166 4   
 d + s t 1165 3 0.7 0.42
 t + s d 1219 3 55.0 < 0.001
 t + d s 1173 3 8.8 0.003
 t + t|d + s t x d 1169 6 1.1 0.57
 t + d + t|s t x s 1173 6 < 0.1 1.0
(B) Timing of hatching
t + d + s   2953 5   
 d + s t 2951 4 < 0.1 1.0
 t + s d 3038 4 86.7 < 0.001
 t + d s 2955 4 4.0 0.04
 t + t|d + s t x d 2913 7 44.7 < 0.001
 t + d + t|s t x s 2956 7 1.2 0.55
(C) Length at hatching
t + d + s   1664 5   
 d + s t 1663 4 0.3 0.56
 t + s d 1688 4 25.8 < 0.001
 t + d s 1662 4 0.1 0.81
 t + t|d + s t x d 1664 7 3.2 0.20
 t + d + t|s t x s 1667 7 0.8 0.65
  1. t treatment, s sire, d dam
  2. Significant p-values are emphasized in bold