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Table 2 Description of 25 linear measurements of the postcranial skeleton of bat fetuses used in this study

From: Postcranial heterochrony, modularity, integration and disparity in the prenatal ossification in bats (Chiroptera)

Measurement Acronym Description Module
Crown-Rump Length CRL Length from the top of the head to bottom of torso
Humeral Length HL Left humerus length 3, 4, 6, 8
Clavicular length CL Left clavicle length 2, 6, 8
Scapular length SL Left scapula length 2, 6, 8
Femoral length FL Left femur length 3, 7, 8
Rib length RiL First left rib length 2, 9
Tibial length TL Left tibia length 3, 7, 8
Fibular length FiL Left fibula length 3, 7, 8
Radial length RL Left radius length 3, 4, 6, 8
Ulnar length UL Left ulna length 3, 4, 6, 8
Sternum length StL Sternum length 2, 8
Manual phalange length MPL Proximal phalange of second digit of left forelimb 3, 5, 6, 8
Pedal phalange length PPL Proximal phalange of first digit of left hindlimb 3, 7, 8
Metacarpal length McL Metacarpus of second digit of left forelimb 3, 5, 6, 8
Metatarsal length MtL Metatarsal of first digit of left hindlimb 3, 7, 8
Tarsal length TaL Length of calcaneus of left hindlimb 3, 7, 8
Carpal length CaL Length of scaphoid of left forelimb 3, 5, 6, 8
Cervical vertebral width CvL C1 vertebral width 1, 2, 9
Thoracic vertebral width TvL T1 vertebral width 1, 2, 9
Lumbar vertebral width LvL L1 vertebral width 1, 2, 9
Sacral vertebral width SvL S1 vertebral width 1, 2, 9
Caudal vertebral width CavL vertebral width of first caudal vertebra 1, 2, 9
Ilium length IlL Length from top of iliac crest to the edge of triradiate joint 2, 7, 8
Ischium length IsL Length from bottom of ramus to edge of triradiate joint 2, 7, 8
Pubis bone length PuL Length from bottom of ramus to edge of triradiate joint 2, 7, 8
  1. Numbers indicate the modularity hypotheses where each bone was included (see Table 3 for number coding)