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Table 2 Specimens used in this study

From: Morphological evolution and modularity of the caecilian skull

Species Family Catalogue number Sex Total Length (mm)
Atretochoana eiselti Typhlonectidae NHMW 9144 F 735
Boulengerula boulengeri Herpelidae BMNH 2000.474 ?F 165
Brasilotyphlus braziliensis Siphonopidae AMNH A51751 M 260
Caecilia tentaculata Caeciliidae BMNH field tag MW3945 M 533
Chikila fulleri Chikilidae DU field tag SDB1304 F 212
Chthonerpeton indistinctum Typhlonectidae MCP field tag MW16 M 325
Crotaphatrema bornmuelleri Scolecomorphidae NHMW 14859 M 275
Crotaphatrema lamottei Scolecomorphidae BMNH field tag MW5741 M 265
Dermophis mexicanus Dermophiidae MVZ 179395 M 415
Epicrionops bicolor Rhinatrematidae BMNH F 230
Gegeneophis carnosus Indotyphlidae UK field tag MW295 M 155
Geotrypetes seraphini Dermophiidae BMNH field tag MW4543 M 195
Grandisonia alternans Indotyphlidae BMNH 1956.1.13.39 M 220
Gymnopis multiplicata Dermophiidae BM1907.10.9.10 M 460
Herpele squalostoma Herpelidae BMNH field tag MW4534 M 345
Hypogeophis rostratus Indotyphlidae UMMZ 179847 F 225
Ichthyophis bombayensis Ichthyophiidae BMNH M 320
Ichthyophis glutinosus Ichthyophiidae NMSL field tag MW1773 F 401
Ichthyophis nigroflavus Ichthyophiidae BMNH 1967.2775 M 420
Idiocranium russeli Indotyphlidae BMNH 1946.9.5.80 F 95
Indotyphlus cf. battersbyi Indotyphlidae AMNH 89788 ? 202
Luetkenotyphlus brasiliensis Siphonopidae BMNH 1930.4.4.1 F ?
Microcaecilia albiceps Siphonopidae MCZ A-58412 ? 181
Mimosiphonops vermiculatus Siphonopidae KUH 93271 ?F 185
Nectocaecilia petersii Typhlonectidae BMNH F 590
Oscaecilia ochrocephala Caeciliidae MCZ 4268 F 330
Potomotyphlus kaupii Typhlonectidae IRNSB 12447 ? 355
Praslinia cooperi Indotyphlidae BMNH 1907.10.15.154 F 165
Rhinatrema bivittatum Rhinatrematidae BMNH field tag MW2395 F 229
Schistometopum gregorii Dermophiidae MCZ 20143 F 300
Scolecomorphus kirkii Scolecomorphidae BMNH 2005.1388 F 380
Siphonops annulatus Siphonopidae BMNH 1956.1.15.88 M 340
Sylvacaecilia grandisonae Indotyphlidae BMNH 1969.1589 F 259
Typhlonectes compressicauda Typhlonectidae BMNH field tag MW5820 M 305
Uraeotyphlus oxyurus Ichthyophiidae MNHN 1994.419 M 256
  1. Specimens are from the following institutions: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA (AMNH), Natural History Museum, London, UK (BMNH), Delhi University, New Delhi, India (DU), Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium (IRSNB), University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, USA (KUH), Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil (MCP), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN), Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, USA (MVZ), Naturhistorisches Museum, Zoologische Abtheilung, Vienna, Austria (NHMW), National Museum of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka (NMSL), University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India (UK), University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, USA (UMMZ)