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Table 1 Sampling sites and genetic diversity indices based on genome-wide gene-associated microsatellites of Ciona robusta

From: Rapid microevolution during recent range expansion to harsh environments

Site code Region, Country, Ocean Latitude Longitude AveT MaxT MinT AveS MaxS MinS N A R Ho H E F IS
RS Eilat, Israel, the Red Sea 29°33′11″N 34°57′35″E 24.97 28.67 22.04 40.34 41.35 39.72 22 2.524 0.349 0.427 0.186
AM Arenys de Mar, Spain, the Mediterranean 41°33′41″N 2°34′37″E 17.98 25.28 13.29 37.67 38.21 36.87 48 2.853 0.307 0.416 0.264
BL Blanes, Spain, the Mediterranean 41°41′12″N 2°53′22″E 17.44 24.38 12.98 37.95 38.32 37.48 22 2.624 0.307 0.442 0.311
SA Cape Town, South Africa, the Atlantic 33°54′33″S 18°25′59″E 16.03 16.92 15.16 35.18 35.3 34.99 33 2.930 0.325 0.435 0.256
NMF Nelson, New Zealand, the Pacific 41°15′29″S 173°16′42″E 13.55 16.37 11.22 34.78 34.92 34.62 17 3.937 0.399 0.562 0.296
GAP Gampo, Korea, the Pacific 35°48′26″N 129°30′13″E 17.72 24.31 12.18 33.72 34.48 32.17 30 3.789 0.389 0.528 0.266
  1. A total of six populations, including the population collected from the Red Sea in this study and other five populations from our previous study [44]. AveT, annual average water temperature; MaxT, the highest monthly average water temperature; MinT, the lowest monthly average water temperature; AveS, annual average water salinity; MaxS, the highest monthly average water salinity; MinS, the lowest monthly average water salinity; N, number of individuals; AR, mean allelic richness; HO, mean observed heterozygosity; HE, mean expected heterozygosity; FIS, mean inbreeding coefficient