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Table 5 Traits associated with seed size for species of Plukenetia and outgroup genera (arranged by size). DDF = dry deciduous forest; ERF = evergreen rain forest; SMF = seasonal moist forest

From: Seed size evolution and biogeography of Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae), a pantropical genus with traditionally cultivated oilseed species

Species/ species group Sub-clade Biome Habitat Growth form Stem size Fruit type Seed size category Seedling ecology
P. polyadenia P3 ERF Lowland forest; riparian forest Canopy liana Thick Fleshy Max Shade
P. conophora P4 ERF, SMF Lowland forest Canopy liana Thick Fleshy XL Shade
P. lehmanniana P3 ERF, SMF Lowland to montane forest edges, light gaps Slender to robust liana Thick Fleshy XL Light gap
P. huayllabambana P3 ERF, SMF Montane forest edges, ravines, light gaps Slender to robust liana Thick Dry XL Light gap
P. carabiasiae P3 ERF Montane forest Canopy liana Thick Dry XL Shade
P. cf. carolis-vegae P3 ERF, SMF Montane forest edges, ravines, light gaps Slender to robust liana Thick Dry XL Light gap
P. serrata P1 SMF Pre-montane to montane forest edges Slender to robust liana Thick Fleshy L Light gap
Madagascan species P5 DDF Forest on limestone or sand; spiny forest scrub Robust liana Thick Dry L Light gap
P. volubilis P3 ERF, SMF, (semi-humid savanna) Lowland to pre-montane forest edges, ravines, light gaps (seasonally flooded savanna woodland) Vine to slender liana Thin Dry (M) L Light gap
P. stipellata P3 ERF, SMF Lowland forest edges, light gaps Vine to slender liana Thin Dry M Light gap
P. corniculata P5 ERF, SMF Lowland forest edges, light gaps Vine to slender liana Thin Dry M Light gap
P. supraglandulosa P2 SMF Lowland to submontane forest edges, light gaps Vine to slender liana Thin Dry M Light gap
P. cf. penninervia P2 EMF Lowland pluvial forest edges, light gaps Vine to slender liana Thin Dry M Light gap
P. africana P5 Semi-arid savanna Savanna woodland on sandy soil Vine with thick rootstock Thin Dry S–M Light gap
NWSG2 pro parte (excluding P. cf. penninervia, P. serrata, P. supraglandulosa) P2 ERF, SMF, (DDF) Lowland to pre-montane (montane) forest edges, rocky outcrops, light gaps; white sand forest Vine to slender liana Thin Dry S Light gap
Romanoa n/a SMF Semi-deciduous lowland forest, rocky outcrops, light gaps; stony soil caatinga Vine to slender liana Thin Dry S Light gap
Haematostemon n/a ERF Lowland forest; riparian forest Small tree/ shrub Thin Dry S Light gap