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Table 4 Diagnostic characters of the high elevation species complex (Plukenetia carolis-vegae, P. cf. carolis-vegae, P. huayllabambana) and P. volubilis. Most characters were updated from species descriptions; † = unverified and potentially inaccurate

From: Seed size evolution and biogeography of Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae), a pantropical genus with traditionally cultivated oilseed species

Character P. carolis-vegae Bussmann, Paniagua & C.Téllez P. cf. carolis-vegae P. huayllabambana Bussmann, C.Téllez & A.Glenn [putative cf. carolis-vegae × volubilis] P. volubilis L.
Sampled in phylogeny No Yes Yes Yes
Geographic range in Peru Amazonas Cusco, Junin, Pasco Amazonas, Cajamarca Amazonas, Cusco, Junin, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martin
Elevation 1850 m 1450–2250 m 1200–2150 m 130–900(− 1800) m
Leaf stipels 1–2 thick stipels 1–2 thick stipels 1–2 thick stipels 1 knob (thick stipel)
Staminate sepals 4 (rarely 5) † 5 (sometimes 4 + 1 very thin, rarely 4) 4 4
Staminate nectaries Absent † Large irregularly shaped segments intermixed between stamens Large irregularly shaped segments intermixed between stamens Absent
Filament length 0.5–1 mm † 1–1.5 (2) mm 0.1–0.5 (1) mm ~ 0.5 mm
Style length 4–7 mm † 5–12 mm 6–7.5 mm (9–)15–35 mm
Seed size measurements (length x width x thickness) 27 × 25 × 20 mm 19–20 × 17–18.6 × 13–15.8 mm 25–28 × 22–27 × 17–20 mm 13–22 × 11.8–18 × 5–9 mm
Seed size category XL L XL (M) L