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Table 1 Results from phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) analyses

From: Variations in the breeding behavior of cichlids and the evolution of the multi-functional seminal plasma protein, seminal plasma glycoprotein 120

Trait R2 F df p Lambda Predictors Coefficient(estimated) Std. Error t P
Mitochondrial tree
Glycosylation 0.74 30.11 4, 38 < 0.001 Estimated lambda: 1 Stocked-sperm fertilization −0.18 0.19 −0.92 0.36
     lower bound: 0.000, p < 0.0001 Substrate fertilization 0.03 0.17 0.17 0.86
     upper bound: 1.000, p = 1 Oral fertilization 0.82 0.19 4.41 < 0.001*
      Sperm competition 0.01 0.027 0.50 0.62
SPP expression 0.70 21.8 4,38 < 0.001 Estimated lambda: 0.64 Stocked-sperm fertilization −0.14 0.28 −0.52 0.61
     lower bound: 0.000, p = 1 Substrate fertilization 0.002 0.22 0.008 0.99
     upper bound: 1.000, p = 0.001 Oral fertilization 1.10 0.24 4.66 < 0.001*
      Sperm competition 0.01 0.027 0.50 0.62
Sperm immobilization by N-terminal region of SPP120 0.94 47.4 4,7 < 0.001 Estimated lambda: 1 Stocked-sperm fertilization 0.31 0.14 2.21 0.06
     lower bound: 0.000, p = 0.02 Substrate fertilization 0.19 0.08 2.49 0.04*
     upper bound: 1.000, p = 1 Oral fertilization −0.3 0.07 −3.87 < 0.001*
      Sperm competition −0.04 0.02 −1.72 0.12
Nuclear markers
Glycosylation 0.84 21.7 4.16 < 0.001 Estimated lambda: 0 Stocked-sperm fertilization −0.32 0.28 −1.16 0.27
     lower bound: 0.000, p = 1 Substrate fertilization −0.16 0.21 −0.78 0.45
     upper bound: 1.000, p = 0.09 Oral fertilization 0.65 0.22 2.97 < 0.01*
      Sperm competition 0.11 0.05 2.22 0.04*
SPP expression 0.72 10.5 4,16 < 0.001 Estimated lambda: 0 Stocked-sperm fertilization −0.13 0.53 −0.24 0.81
     lower bound: 0.000, p = 1 Substrate fertilization −0.07 0.39 −0.18 0.86
     upper bound: 1.000, p = 0.01 Oral fertilization 1.03 0.41 2.49 0.02*
      Sperm competition 0.09 0.09 1.03 0.32
Sperm immobilization by N-terminal region of SPP120 *tree of SPP120 was used 0.89 24.9 4,7 < 0.001 Estimated lambda: 0 Stocked-sperm fertilization 0.39 0.09 4.08 < 0.005*
     lower bound: 0.000, p = 1 Substrate fertilization 0.22 0.06 3.73 < 0.001*
     upper bound: 1.000, p = 0.50 Oral fertilization −0.24 0.06 −3.86 < 0.005*
      Sperm competition −0.06 0.02 −2.58 0.04*