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Table 2 Effects of phylogeny, size, and ecology on whole-column morphology and individual vertebral positions

From: Adaptation and constraint in the evolution of the mammalian backbone

Vertebral Position Phylogeny Allometry Ecology Ecology2
  K p-val. Rsq p-val. Rsq p-val. Rsq p-val.
Whole Column 0.63 0.001 0.12 < 0.001 0.09 0.012 0.08 0.032
First Thoracic 0.65 0.001 0.16 < 0.001 0.07 0.112 0.07 0.174
Mid Thoracic 0.72 0.001 0.14 < 0.001 0.08 0.086 0.08 0.066
Diaphragmatic 0.54 0.001 0.10 < 0.001 0.05 0.535 0.06 0.331
Second Lumbar 0.63 0.001 0.13 < 0.001 0.11 0.006 0.08 0.051
Final Lumbar 0.66 0.001 0.10 < 0.001 0.13 0.001 0.09 0.048
  1. Phylogenetic signal was measured using the K-statistic. Allometry, ecology, and their interaction from a phylogenetic MANCOVA. Rsq R-squared value. P-val. p value, Ecology2 secondary ecology assignment used
  2. Bold values indicate significance at the 0.05 alpha level