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Table 1 The main distinctive phialides characters of five clades

From: Estimated divergence times of Hirsutella (asexual morphs) in Ophiocordyceps provides insight into evolution of phialide structure

Clade Phialides morphology Representative species Host
H. thompsonii share short bottle-shaped or basally inflated, globose phialides, generally no more than 20 μm H. necatrix, H. gregis, H. cryptosclerotium, H. tydeicola, H. sphaerospora Acari, mite, Homoptera
H. citriformis inflated bases and narrowly abruptly into a narrow long neck (20-40 μm) H. gigantea, H. fusiformis, H. radiata, H. guignardii, H. longicolla, H. saussurei Homoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera
H. nodulosa helical twisting at the apex of phialides and warts on base H. aphidis, H. brownorum, H. leizhouensis, H. liboensis Lepidoptera
H. sinensis cylindric, slender or subulate base, gradually tapering to a warted neck, usually more than 30 μm H. sinensis, H. rhossiliensis, H. illustris, H. strigosa nematodes, mites, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera
H. guyana typical phialides, subulate with a basal cylindric portion, usually more than 30 μm H. guyana, H. versicolor Homoptera, Acari