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Table 1 Two-way PERMANOVA detected significant differences in contact and alarm calls between birds at different altitudes (low-, highlands) and living in habitats of different structure (swamp, riparian, thicket)

From: Evolution of contact and alarm calls in the Kenyan endemic Hinde’s babbler (Aves: Passeriformes)

Factor Contact calls Alarm calls
d.f. Pseudo-F P(F) d.f. Pseudo-F P(F)
Low-/Highland 2 3.34 0.002 2 19.33 < 0.001
Habitat 1 3.89 0.009 1 15.01 < 0.001
Low/High×Habitat 2 1.33 0.73 2 1.36 0.74
  1. Error degrees of freedom (d.f.): contact calls: 495; alarm calls: 560