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Table 2 Comparison of main features of the nervous system in Bryozoa

From: Morphology of the bryozoan Cinctipora elegans (Cyclostomata, Cinctiporidae) with first data on its sexual reproduction and the cyclostome neuro-muscular system

  Phylactolaemata Cyclostomata Gymnolaemata Reference
digestive tract mostly nerve plexus few neurite bundles, on anal and lateral sides of the foregut few neurite bundles on anal side of the foregut 29, 32, 67, this study
lophophoral base circum-oral nerve ring circum-oral nerve ring plus incomplete outer ring circum-oral nerve ring plus incomplete outer ring (trifid nerve) 29, 30, 32, this study
cerebral ganglion/brain with cavity without cavity, plus lateral ganglia cavity in few ctenostomes, missing in cheilostomes 30, 32, 60, this study
tentacle innervation* 6 tentacle nerves 4 tentacle nerves 4 tentacle nerves 26, 29, 32, this study
tentacle sheath mostly diffuse nerve plexus two neurite bundles from cerebral ganglion two mixed bundles 29, 67, this study
body wall nerve plexus mainly circular neurites in epithelium of membranous sac separate parietal neurite bundles 29, 59, 67, this study
apertural/orificial innervation radially via duplicature bands and vestibular wall radially via attachment organ and vestibular wall via few parietovaginal bands or distinct aperture 61, 67, this study
serotonergic nervous system concentrated in cerebral ganglion, thin bundles in circum-oral nerve ring, regular perikarya at lophophoral base concentrated in cerebral ganglion, thin bundles in circum-oral nerve ring, three oral perikarya concentrated in cerebral ganglion, thin bundles in circum-oral nerve ring, regular perikarya at lophophoral base with three oral perikarya including ‘serotonergic gap’ 31, 33, this study
  1. *possibly peritoneal neurites or subperitoneal cells not considered