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Table 1 Comparison of main muscular systems in Bryozoa

From: Morphology of the bryozoan Cinctipora elegans (Cyclostomata, Cinctiporidae) with first data on its sexual reproduction and the cyclostome neuro-muscular system

  Phylactolaemata Cyclostomata Gymnolaemata Reference
funiculus smooth, several longitudinal fibers smooth, several longitudinal fibers present in some species; if present smooth, longitudinal fibers 31, 75,this study
digestive tract almost exclusively circular and striated, only intestine smooth myoepithelial pharynx and esophagus with dense muscles, otherwise mostly smooth dispersed fibers myoepithelial pharynx and esophagus with dense muscles, otherwise mostly smooth dispersed fibers 28; 73, this study
lophophoral base continuous to tentacle muscles separate abfrontal and frontal muscles separate abfrontal muscles 28, 31, 75, this study
tentacle muscle two longitudinal bands, smooth or striated two longit. bands, striated; sometimes two abfrontal bands two longit. bands, striated 31, 73, 75, this study
tentacle sheath circ. +/or only longitudinal musc. longitudinal musculature longitudinal musculature 31, 73, 75, this study
body wall orthogonal mesh of circular + longitudinal fibers circular to diagonal muscles in membranous sac transverse parietal muscles 18, 28, 71, this study
apertural/orificial muscles radially arranged radially arranged few bundles, often bilateral symmetry 28, 75, this study