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Table 2 Parameter estimated for the Linear Mixed Models (LMM) on the influence of (a) the species of the presented picture and (b) the genetic distance between species on the percentage of time spent looking towards the pictures. The influence (c) of species of the presented picture and (d) the genetic distance between species on the percentage of time spent sniffing the pictures

From: The role of facial pattern variation for species recognition in red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons)

  Model Response variable Random factors Fixed factors Estimate SE P-value
a LMM Percentage of time spent looking towards the pictures Individual identity intercept 0.64 0.04 < 0.001
rufous brown lemurs −0.16 0.05 < 0.01
brown lemurs −0.30 0.05 < 0.001
white-fronted lemurs −0.30 0.05 < 0.001
red-bellied lemurs −0.35 0.05 < 0.001
control −0.35 0.05 < 0.001
sex −0.05 0.06 0.47
rufous brown lemurs-sex male 0.10 0.07 0.18
brown lemurs- sex male 0.15 0.07 0.03
white-fronted lemurs-sex male 0.26 0.07 < 0.001
red-bellied lemurs-sex male 0.18 0.07 0.01
control-sex male 0.09 0.07 0.21
b LMM Percentage of time spent looking towards the pictures Individual identity intercept 0.47 0.03 < 0.001
genetic distance −0.04 0.009 < 0.001
sex 0.09 0.04 0.06
c LMM Percentage of time spent of sniffing events Individual identity intercept 0.34 0.04 < 0.001
rufous brown lemurs −0.10 0.05 < 0.05
brown lemurs −0.22 0.05 < 0.001
white-fronted lemurs −0.13 0.05 < 0.05
red-bellied lemurs −0.23 0.05 < 0.001
control −0.25 0.05 < 0.001
sex 0.06 0.04 0.19
d LMM Percentage of time of sniffing events Individual identity intercept 0.25 0.04 < 0.001
genetic distance −0.03 0.01 < 0.01
sex 0.06 0.05 0.27