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Table 2 Significant D-statistics (Z-score > 3 and p < 0.0001) for different combination of three goose species

From: A history of hybrids? Genomic patterns of introgression in the True Geese

P1 P2 P3 D-statistics Z-score
BRANTA
 Barnacle Goose Cackling Goose Canada Goose 0.087 4.322
 Barnacle Goose Cackling Goose Red-breasted Goose 0.146 6.022
 Barnacle Goose Cackling Goose Black Brent 0.094 3.516
 Barnacle Goose Canada Goose Red-breasted Goose 0.1 4.037
 Barnacle Goose Hawaii Goose Red-breasted Goose 0.094 4.192
 Barnacle Goose Black Brent Red-breasted Goose 0.073 3.022
ANSER
 Lesser White-fronted Greater White-fronted Pink-footed Goose 0.126 6.116
 Taiga Bean Goose    0.09 4.413
 Pink-footed Goose Greater White-fronted Emperor Goose 0.088 3.701
 Tundra Bean Goose    0.079 3.383
 Taiga Bean Goose    0.128 5.457
 Greylag Goose    0.079 3.537
 Taiga Bean Goose Greater White-fronted Bar-headed Goose 0.083 3.470
 Greater White-fronted Lesser White-fronted Swan Goose 0.114 5.279
 Pink-footed Goose    0.15 6.821
 Tundra Bean Goose    0.16 8.15
 Taiga Bean Goose    0.173 8.385
 Greater White-fronted Lesser White-fronted Ross’ Goose 0.104 5.325
 Pink-footed Goose    0.12 5.421
 Tundra Bean Goose    0.103 4.682
 Taiga Bean Goose    0.083 3.93
 Swan Goose    0.103 3.984
 Emperor Goose    0.102 4.51
 Greater White-fronted Lesser White-fronted Snow Goose 0.165 7.336
 Pink-footed Goose    0.174 7.032
 Tundra Bean Goose    0.157 7.053
 Taiga Bean Goose    0.137 6.224
 Swan Goose    0.156 6.525
 Greylag Goose    0.086 4.054
 Emperor Goose    0.14 6.007
 Pink-footed Goose Lesser White-fronted Emperor Goose 0.076 3.164
 Tundra Bean Goose    0.07 3.0
 Taiga Bean Goose    0.12 5.419
 Greylag Goose    0.078 3.472
 Taiga Bean Goose Pink-footed Goose Bar-headed Goose 0.082 3.436
 Greater White-fronted Greylag Goose Ross’ Goose 0.087 3.719
 Pink-footed Goose    0.107 4.496
 Tundra Bean Goose    0.086 3.408
 Swan Goose    0.084 3.049
 Emperor Goose    0.163 6.67
 Greater White-fronted Greylag Goose Snow Goose 0.072 3.055
 Pink-footed Goose    0.091 3.416
 Emperor Goose    0.139 5.59
 Emperor Goose Tundra Bean Goose Ross’ Goose 0.078 3.692
 Emperor Goose Tundra Bean Goose Snow Goose 0.074 3.317
 Emperor Goose Taiga Bean Goose Ross’ Goose 0.139 6.346
 Emperor Goose Taiga Bean Goose Snow Goose 0.139 6.655
 Taiga Bean Goose Greylag Goose Bar-headed Goose 0.09 4.059
  1. Asymmetric gene flow is between P2 and P3. The outgroup for Branta species was a consensus sequence based on all Anser species, while the outgroup for Anser species was a consensus sequence based on all Branta species