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Fig. 4 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 4

From: Visual adaptation in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: depth-related variation of color and scotopic opsins in species from sand/mud bottoms

Fig. 4

Functional diversities and adaptation of opsin genes in Lake Victoria. af Dark–light difference in spectra of visual pigments. Visual pigments were reconstituted from three LWS alleles [(a), D; (b), Ds; and (c), P] and three RH1 alleles [(d), rDb; (e), rDs; and (f), rMga], with A1- (black) and A2-derived (red) retinal. The A1 pigments of the P allele were measured previously [18]. g Summary of the functional diversities of LWS and RH1 alleles reconstituted by A1- (g) and A2-derived (h) retinal. The λmax values and allele distributions of L (rocky substratum) [17] and H (sand/mud substratum) [29] were described in previous studies. The distributions of RH1 and LWS alleles are shown by green and orange arrows, respectively. The dominant light wavelength in shallow and deep water [18, 28, 32] is shown by the orange bar

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