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Table 1 Comparison of morphological traits among Late Devonian seed plants

From: Further study of Late Devonian seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba: its reconstruction and evolutionary significance

Taxon

Frond rachis arrangement

Length of primary rachis prior to bifurcation (cm)

Location of ultimate pinnae

Pinnules

Fertile rachises bearing pollen organs

Prickles

Elkinsia [5]

Equally and repeatedly bifurcated

0-13a

on secondary and higher orders of rachises

Laminate

Isotomously and cruciately dichotomized

absent

Laceya [17, 18]

Pinnate with bifurcated primary rachis

up to 15.5

on both primary and secondary rachises

absent

Kongshania [8]

Pinnate

on tertiary rachises

Laminate

Isotomously dichotomized

absent

Yiduxylon [13]

Pinnate with bifurcated primary rachis

ca. 3

on tertiary rachises

Planate and highly dissected

absent

Telangiopsis [10]

Pinnate with bifurcated primary rachis

0a

on secondary rachises

Planate and highly dissected

Isotomously dichotomized

on stems

Cosmosperma

Pinnate with bifurcated/trifurcated primary rachis

10.3-21.2

on tertiary rachises

Planate and highly dissected

Anisotomously dichotomized

on stems, frond rachises and cupule surfaces

  1. a: 0 stand for the basally bifurcated primary rachises