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Table 1 Results of body mass (g) and brain mass (g) estimates as well as residuals and investigated ecological scores

From: The effect of body size evolution and ecology on encephalization in cave bears and extant relatives

Species n average body mass (g) StD body mass (g) average body mass literature (g) average brain mass (g) StD brainmass (g) average residuals StD average residuals diet score dormancy score d*d
Ailuropoda melanoleuca 5 118'637 (105'324–135'094) 10,748.36 97'500 (70'000–125'000) 281.79 (238.28–331.52) 33.89 −0.0029 0.0548 1.000 3.000 3.000
Tremarctos ornatus 8 80'918 (64'223–110'621) 15,049.56 117'500 (60'000–175,000) 227.92 (176.12–279.72) 31.33 0.0373 0.0320 1.814 3.000 5.443
Ursus americanus 28 117'116 (83'885–155'600) 20,168.42 170'000 (40'000–300'000) 256.78 (186.48–352.24) 38.39 −0.0373 0.0422 1.884 1.000 1.884
Ursus arctos 93 177'628 (92'655–320'042) 40,696.57 390'000 (55'000–725'000) 378.08 (207.20–538.72) 61.38 −0.0080 0.0464 1.637 1.000 1.637
Ursus deningeri 1 254,996 - - 341.88 - −0.1770 - - - -
Ursus malayanus 50 82'379 (56'333–108'841) 13,709.85 52'500 (25'000–80'000) 340.43 (227.92–435.12) 47.31 0.2047 0.0403 2.684 3.000 8.051
Ursus maritimus 82 211'265 (144'141–277'270) 33,275.87 402'500 (150'000–655'000) 498.80 (393.68–611.24) 53.75 0.0525 0.0320 2.970 2.000 5.940
Ursus spelaeus 99 322'764 (209'553–425'411) 57,207.28 362'500 (225'000–500'000) 430.10 (321.16–569.80) 52.36 −0.1550 0.0443 1.000 1.000 1.000
Ursus thibetanus 29 113'424 (78'533–166'402) 21,401.65 120'000 (40'000–200'000) 282.58 (186.48–414.40) 45.66 0.0155 0.0577 1.920 1.000 1.920
Ursus ursinus 17 147'081 (124'439–183'291) 18,122.18 100'000 (50'000–150'000) 292.52 (248.64–352.24) 26.04 −0.0573 0.0360 2.606 3.000 7.818