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Fig. 2 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 2

From: Retention of duplicated long-wavelength opsins in mosquito lineages by positive selection and differential expression

Fig. 2

Predicted divergence times of insect long-wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsins, based on r8s and BEAST analyses. Estimates of time of divergence are shown in million years MY with r8s (a) and BEAST (b) software. Color circles show the duplication events in the evolution of mosquito LW opsins: most recent common ancestor (MRCA) duplication event (red); An. gambiae duplication event (blue); culicinae duplication event (green); Ae. aegypti duplication event (purple); Cx. quinquefacitaus duplication event (yellow). Squares (dotted line) show the most recent and the more ancestral mosquito LW duplication events. The dagger shows the constrained nodes using fossils. Gray shading indicates opsins under positive selection. Species abbreviations: Acyrthosiphon pisum (ApL), Apis mellifera (AmL), Bombyx mori (BBmL), Calliphora vicina (Cv), Danaus plexippus (DpL), Drosophila melanogaster (DmRh), Pediculus humanus (PhL), and Tribolium castaneum (TcL). a Divergence times in MY were estimated using a penalized likelihood (PL) approach and calibrated with the sister group to Culicidae (Chaoboridae, 187 MY [112]). b Divergence times in MY were estimated using a relaxed clock log normal model and calibrated with the following fossil calibrations [117]: Westphalomerope maryvonneae 313.7 MY (Holometabola), Triassoxyela foveolata 226.4 MY (Hymenoptera), Parasabatinca aftimacrai 129.4 MY (Lepidoptera), Grauvogelia arzvilleriana 240.5 MY (Diptera). The drops and flower represent the first predicted appearance of blood and nectar sources, namely reptiles (345–280 MY), mammals (150 MY), birds (136–65 MY) and flowering plants (125–130 MY) [120, 121]

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