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Table 1 Synapomorphies and diagnostic characters defining new tribal concepts

From: Multigene phylogenetic analysis redefines dung beetles relationships and classification (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)

Tribe Deltochilini (Canthonini) sensu novo:
U 101. Wing, RP 1 posterior sclerite represents small basal appendix of RP 1.
Note: In Anisocanthon basal appendix of RP1 is reduced and poorly visible. In Pseudocanthon appendix of RP1 is separated from RP1.
U 103. Wing, RA 4 significantly thinner than RP 1 , arcuate and not parallel to RA 4 ; RA 4 fused basally with RP 1 .
Tribe Dichotomiini sensu novo:
H 13. Parameres, membrane on lower side strongly sclerotized with two notches basally.
Note: Investigation of additional material revealed that this character is absent in some Dichotomiini sensu novo which suggests a change of its status to at least a homoplastic synapomorphy and at the same time decreases the power of its diagnosability; therefore this character is not illustrated here.
U 58. FLP sclerite elongated in frontal-rear plane usually small c-shaped.
Note: For readability purpose, the original character statement [1] was reworded.
U 62. LC large, ring-shaped in horizontal plane.
H 66. Elytron with 8 distinctly visible striae.
Note: The number of visible striae is 8, the total number of striae is 9 as the last stria indistinctly bifurcates apically.
H 105. Wing, posterior sclerite of RP 1 separated from RP 1.
U 123. Maxilla, stipital sclerite II with medial groove or its trace ; surface of groove usually shagreened.
Note: For readability purpose, the original character statement [1] was reworded.
H 124. Galea, dorsal articular sclerite forms longitudinal carina on galea dorsal surface.
Note: In [1] this character represents a unique synapomorphy; however, it is absent in Isocopris (that was not included in [1]) that suggests a change of its status to at least a homoplastic synapomorphy.
U 139. Epipharynx with triangular deep notch anteriorly.
Tribe Sisyphini sensu novo:
U 50. SRP sclerite represents flat lamella located along right side of aedeagal sack; SRP bears small ring structure apically
U 86. Elytron, last stria (9 th or 8 th ) visible at least preapically.
Note: For readability purpose, the original character statement [1] was reworded. We consider 8th stria in Neosisyphus and 9th in Epirinus to be homologous according to the criterion of position. This character reflects the degree of development of this stria. Since, the original statement, formulated for the needs of phylogenetic analysis, does not meet the needs of diagnosability, this character is not illustrated here but can be found in [1].
H 162. Pronotum, internal surface of basal margin with medial carina.
Note: The degree of expression of this character varies within Sisyphini sensu novo.
D 102. Wing, RP 1 with wide posterior sclerite.
Note: Although this character does not represent an unambiguous synapomorphy in [1], it can be efficiently used for diagnostic purposes. In addition to Sisyphini sensu novo this character is also present in Onthophagini and Oniticellini.
Tribe Coprini sensu novo:
D 113. Wing, apical area bears sclerite located posteriorly of RP 1 .
D 73. 1 st elytral carina absent.
D 48. SRP simple not ring-shaped.
D 68. Elytron with 10 distinctly visible striae (9 th and 10 th striae usually separate preapically).
Note: For readability purpose, the original character statement [1] was reworded.
D 157. Hypomera, anterior ridge stretches toward lateral margin of hypomera.
D 161. Hypomera, posterior longitudinal ridge present.
  1. This table lists synapomorphies and diagnostic characters defining the new tribal concepts. Number preceding character statement refers to the character number in [1]; capital letter indicates unique synapomorphy (U), homoplastic synapomorphy (H) and diagnostic character (D). The listed characters are illustrated in Figs. 4, 5 (except characters 13 and 86, see notes), additional information is provided in "Changes in classification" section