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Table 1 Results from regressing ln (body mass) on maximum-, median latitude, or temperature

From: An interspecific assessment of Bergmann’s rule in 22 mammalian families

Family Predictor n Phylogentic half-life Stationary variance r 2 Optimal regression slope AICc AICc-θAICc
   31.50 30.00 186.25
Bovidae median latitude 81 32.50 29.00 0.030 0.983 186.11 −0.14
max latitude 32.50 29.00 0.040 1.037 185.29 −0.96
  temperature   31.00 29.00 0.019 −1.180 186.99 0.73
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.7038; estimate = −1.3470
   2.41 1.40 52.12
Canidae median latitude 25 11.61 5.30 0.076 0.390 53.06 0.94
max latitude 4.41 2.10 0.085 0.103 52.72 0.60
  temperature   10.81 3.70 0.233 −0.935 48.27 −3.85
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 4.42e–06 Adjusted R-squared = 0.5903; estimate = −1.1081
   200.10 15.20
Cebidae median latitude 35 180.10 0.040 23.736 16.49 1.29
max latitude 180.10 0.035 20.376 16.66 1.46
  temperature   180.10 0.037 −56.352 16.58 1.38
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 2.52e–12; Adjusted R-squared = 0.7714 estimate = −2.6744
   195.10 55.34
Cercopithecidae median latitude 71 104.10 0.023 8.854 55.94 0.61
max latitude 152.10 0.076 25.809 51.91 −3.42
  temperature   136.10 0.039 −36.621 54.73 −0.60
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 1.34e–14; Adjusted R-squared: 0.5731; estimate = −1.8854
   0.41 0.80 62.38
Cervidae median latitude 29 0.46 0.85 0.009 −0.005 64.90 2.51
max latitude 0.31 0.70 0.031 0.007 64.41 2.02
  temperature   0.31 0.70 0.036 −0.020 64.26 1.88
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 9.32e–08; Adjusted R-squared = 0.6457; estimate = −1.4761
   2.30 1.45 616.80
Cricetidae median latitude 415 2.70 1.70 0.000 −0.005 618.81 2.01
max latitude 3.00 1.85 0.004 −0.024 617.22 0.42
  temperature   2.70 1.70 0.000 −0.002 618.89 2.08
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.5502; estimate = −1.3965
   1.15 1.80 136.22
Dasyuridae median latitude 51 1.38 2.04 0.010 0.033 138.06 1.84
max latitude 1.74 2.40 0.032 0.063 137.02 0.80
  temperature   1.29 1.86 0.041 −0.142 136.46 0.24
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 9.49e–10; Adjusted R-squared = 0.5281; estimate = −1.6096
   1.67 0.59 69.93
Echimyidae median latitude 49 1.22 1.22 0.008 −0.029 71.98 2.05
max latitude 3.68 1.15 0.010 0.076 71.91 1.98
  temperature   1.46 0.52 0.014 0.109 71.63 1.70
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 2.65e–09; Adjusted R-squared = 0.523; estimate = −2.0384
   43.40 12.10 55.29
Emballonuridae median latitude 34 43.80 12.10 0.004 −0.587 57.72 2.44
max latitude 44.60 12.10 0.019 0.964 57.19 1.91
  temperature   43.80 12.10 0.010 4.156 57.53 2.24
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 0.0257; Adjusted R-squared = 0.1194; estimate = −1.9120
   1488.10 91.82
Felidae median latitude 29 1440.10 0.030 −43.326 93.71 1.88
max latitude 1320.10 0.055 53.462 92.99 1.17
  temperature   1520.10 0.002 17.582 94.47 2.64
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 6.69e–09; Adjusted R-squared = 0.7076; estimate = −1.5160
   0.39 0.46 64.03
Geomyidae median latitude 32 0.01 0.23 0.366 −0.035 54.29 −9.74
max latitude 0.01 0.23 0.380 −0.030 53.55 −10.47
  temperature   0.01 0.29 0.237 0.055 60.21 −3.82
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 1.02e–08; Adjusted R-squared = 0.6596; estimate = −1.5882
   390.10 70.63
Heteromyidae median latitude 51 375.10 0.009 −20.960 72.54 1.91
max latitude 360.10 0.050 −38.684 70.39 −0.24
  temperature   345.10 0.045 71.262 70.65 0.02
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.7576 estimate = −1.6277
   1.36 0.55 57.47
Leporidae median latitude 45 1.45 0.58 0.010 −0.014 59.42 1.95
max latitude 1.81 0.66 0.037 −0.029 58.19 0.71
  temperature   1.21 0.50 0.011 0.024 59.41 1.94
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 1.11e–13; Adjusted R-squared = 0.72; estimate = −1.4950
   0.55 0.60 98.63
Macropodidae median latitude 46 1.21 0.90 0.068 −0.068 98.59 −0.05
max latitude 0.49 0.58 0.003 0.007 100.94 2.31
  temperature   0.97 0.74 0.071 0.098 98.01 −0.62
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 5.36e–08; Adjusted R-squared = 0.4817; estimate = −1.7153
   0.01 0.50 94.02
Molossidae median latitude 41 0.01 0.50 0.016 −0.009 95.86 1.83
max latitude 0.01 0.50 0.017 −0.009 95.80 1.78
  temperature   0.01 0.50 0.017 0.033 95.80 1.78
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 9.92e–09; Adjusted R-squared = 0.5627; estimate = −2.5360
   0.75 1.60 786.97
Muridae median latitude 324 0.80 1.70 0.000 0.002 789.02 2.05
max latitude 0.80 1.70 0.000 0.005 788.90 1.93
  temperature   0.80 1.70 0.001 0.016 788.71 1.75
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.3136; estimate = −1.3391
   990.70 112.15
Mustelidae median latitude 42 975.70 0.002 −3.630 114.53 2.38
max latitude 975.70 0.001 2.613 114.55 2.41
  temperature   975.70 0.003 9.162 114.48 2.33
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.8448; estimate = −1.6665
   945.70 97.62
Nesomyidae median latitude 32 900.70 0.004 −22.286 100.15 2.52
max latitude 850.70 0.048 −51.197 98.82 1.19
  temperature   925.70 0.007 −42.047 100.04 2.42
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 0.54933; Adjusted R-squared = −0.0209; estimate = −0.1836
   1.71 1.20 184.97
Phyllostomidae median latitude 101 1.66 1.15 0.000 0.006 187.13 2.15
max latitude 1.96 1.30 0.013 −0.050 185.82 0.85
  temperature   1.66 1.15 0.009 −0.157 186.23 1.25
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 4.17e–08; Adjusted R-squared = 0.2556; estimate = −2.1340
   0.15 1.18 134.12
Pteropodidae median latitude 52 0.13 1.02 0.069 0.025 136.36 2.24
max latitude 0.16 0.96 0.143 0.034 132.27 −1.85
  temperature   0.13 1.02 0.065 −0.126 136.71 2.59
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = 3.04e–05; Adjusted R-squared = 0.2821; estimate = −2.4749
   1.41 2.50 418.47
Sciuridae median latitude 196 1.21 2.20 0.005 0.018 419.71 1.24
max latitude 1.21 2.20 0.000 0.001 420.58 2.11
  temperature   1.61 2.80 0.000 0.002 420.58 2.11
Median latitude - temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.8577; estimate = −1.8349
   0.16 0.45 155.53
Vespertilionidae median latitude 91 0.16 0.45 0.041 0.002 158.77 3.24
max latitude 0.16 0.45 0.042 −0.003 158.66 3.13
  temperature   0.16 0.45 0.042 −0.006 158.72 3.20
Median latitude-temperature regression: P-value = <2e–16; Adjusted R-squared = 0.8307; estimate = −2.0254
  1. Phylogenetic half-life estimates indicate the level of phylogenetic dependency in models where no predictors were included. In models with predictors, half-life gives the average time (in lengths of the phylogeny) it takes to move half the way from an ancestral state to the optimal state, i.e. rate of adaptation. All phylogenies are scaled to a total length of 1. Stationary variance gives the residual variance when the model has reaches a stochastic equilibrium, and r 2 gives the amount of variance explained by the optimal regression. Optimal regression slope is the slope for which SLOUCH has removed the effect of phylogenetic inertia (slope expected under immediate and unconstrained adaptation). AICc values are compared to the intercept-only model (AICc-θAICc) where larger negative values indicate the most improvement from the model without predictors. Also included are results from regressing median latitude on temperature for each family