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Table 1 Identity and characteristics of mature females in the Bompusa community

From: Mixed messages: wild female bonobos show high variability in the timing of ovulation in relation to sexual swelling patterns

Female Parity Dominance rank Estimated age of femalea (years) Age of youngest dependent offspringa (years) Date of most recent parturition Swelling cycles analysed Hormone cycles analysed
Djulie N 9 9–11
Gwen P; M 3 15–18 3.3 Sep 2012 4
Iris M 1 > 25 0.8 Mar 2010 6
Luna N; P 5 11–13 Mar 2013 7 4
Martha M 1 > 30 circa 2003 11 4
Nina N; P 7 11–13 Jan 2011 1
Olga M 2 > 25 1.6 Oct 2012 6 5
Paula M 1 > 25 0.5 Oct 2012 5 3
Polly N 8 9–11 2
Rio M 2 > 25 > 5 May 2012 4 3
Susi P 6 15–18 1.4 May 2009 6 4
Uma P; M 3 15–18 2.3 Oct 2012 7 4
Wilma P 4 11–13 Feb 2011 5 4
Zoe M 2 > 25 0.5 Jun 2010 6 3
      Total 70 34
  1. aAt the beginning of the study (December 2010)
  2. Focal females are indicated in bold typeface. Parity abbreviations are as follows: P primiparous, M multiparous, N nulliparous. A dominance rank of 1 indicates the highest rank