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Table 1 Sperm characteristics of the terrestrial gastropod species examined

From: Breeding system, shell size and age at sexual maturity affect sperm length in stylommatophoran gastropods

Family Species Total sperm length (μm) Sperm head length (μm) Sperm head length in % of total sperm length Relative sperm length (in % of maximum shell dimension)
Succineidae Succinea putris (Linnaeus 1758) 478.8 ± 2.47 9.3 ± 0.13 1.9 ± 0.03 2.9 ± 0.02
Chondrinidae Chondrina avenacea (Bruguière 1792) 374.6 ± 5.23 6.0 ± 0.40 1.6 ± 0.09 6.3 ± 0.07
  Chondrina clienta (Westerlund 1883) 336.6 ± 1.41 5.6 ± 0.34 1.7 ± 0.09 5.7 ± 0.02
  Abida secale (Draparnaud 1801) 375.1 ± 2.71 6.7 ± 0.31 1.8 ± 0.08 5.4 ± 0.04
Lauriidae Lauria cylindracea (Da Costa 1778) 474.2 ± 4.01 11.7 ± 0.17 2.5 ± 0.05 13.2 ± 0.11
Orculidae Orcula dolium (Draparnaud 1801) 431.9 ± 4.68 9.5 ± 0.17 2.2 ± 0.06 6.1 ± 0.06
Pyramidulidae Pyramidula pusilla (Vallot 1801) 308.0 ± 7.46 8.6 ± 0.40 2.8 ± 0.07 13.2 ± 0.27
Vertiginidae Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud 1801) 207.9 ± 1.31 8.8 ± 0.49 4.2 ± 0.24 11.3 ± 0.06
  Columella columella (Martens 1830) 176.6 ± 5.29 8.9 ± 0.43 5.0 ± 0.18 6.2 ± 0.18
Enidae Ena montana (Draparnaud 1801) 590.7 ± 6.41 11.8 ± 0.23 2.0 ± 0.06 4.2 ± 0.04
Clausiliidae Clausilia rugosa (Draparnaud 1801) 689.5 NA 8.2 NA 1.2 NA 9.9 NA
  Clausilia bidentata (Strøm 1765) 781.8 ± 1.15 7.5 ± 1.14 1.0 ± 0.02 7.4 ± 0.01
  Macrogastra plicatula (Draparnaud 1801) 1209.8 NA 13.0 NA 1.1 NA 9.1 NA
  Macrogastra ventricosa (Draparnaud 1801) 1195.4 NA 13.2 NA 1.1 NA 6.2 NA
  Cochlodina laminata (Montagu 1803) 1040.3 ± 1.47 10.7 ± 0.21 1.0 ± 0.02 7.1 ± 0.01
  Cochlodina fimbriata (Rossmässler 1835) 1119.5 ± 5.94 10.1 ± 0.28 0.9 ± 0.03 7.4 ± 0.04
  Balea perversa (Linnaeus 1758) 751.7 ± 0.45 8.7 ± 0.33 1.2 ± 0.05 8.5 ± 0.01
  Balea biplicata (Montagu 1803) 1061.9 ± 10.95 12.6 ± 0.19 1.2 ± 0.02 6.2 ± 0.07
Bothriembryontidae Discoleus aguirrei (Doering 1884) 1215.9 ± 11.64 11.3 ± 0.50 0.9 ± 0.05 6.4 ± 0.05
  Discoleus ameghinoi (von Ihering 1908) 1232.6 ± 10.73 10.7 ± 0.50 0.9 ± 0.05 5.9 ± 0.05
Odontostomidae Plagiodontes patagonicus (d’Orbigny 1835) 1340.9 ± 11.48 13.8 ± 0.15 1.0 ± 0.02 6.7 ± 0.05
  Cyclodontina (Ventania) avellanedae (Doering 1881) 908.0 ± 11.36 12.6 ± 0.37 1.4 ± 0.04 4.1 ± 0.08
Strophocheilidae Austroborus lutescens dorbignyi (Doering 1876) 1050.7 ± 5.68 11.8 ± 0.30 1.1 ± 0.03 3.5 ± 0.02
Discidae Discus rotundatus (Müller 1774) 429.4 ± 3.48 9.0 ± 0.17 2.1 ± 0.02 7.6 ± 0.05
Oxychilidae Oxychilus navarricus helveticus (Blum 1881) 101.4 ± 0.65 7.7 ± 0.11 7.6 ± 0.16 1.3 ± 0.01
  Oxychilus draparnaudi (Beck 1837) 188.9 ± 1.61 8.1 ± 0.02 4.3 ± 0.03 1.8 ± 0.01
  Aegopinella nitens (Michaud 1831) 103.6 ± 2.29 7.6 ± 0.39 7.3 ± 0.33 1.2 ± 0.02
Zonitidae Zonitoides nitidus (Müller 1774) 185.3 ± 3.96 9.3 ± 0.10 5.0 ± 0.10 3.2 ± 0.06
Limacidae Limax maximus Linnaeus 1758 242.4 ± 1.52 8.1 ± 0.40 3.4 ± 0.14
  Limax tenellus Müller 1774 160.2 ± 1.46 6.3 ± 0.07 3.9 ± 0.08
  Limax cinereoniger Wolf 1803 289.7 ± 0.66 8.4 ± 0.15 2.9 ± 0.06
Agriolimacidae Deroceras reticulatum (Müller 1774) 119.5 ± 0.59 7.9 ± 0.10 6.6 ± 0.06
Vitrinidae Vitrina pellucida (Müller 1774) 201.2 NA 5.8 NA 2.9 NA 6.7 NA
  Vitrinobrachium breve (Férussac 1821) 267.0 NA 7.6 NA 2.9 NA 5.0 NA
Arionidae Arion (ater) rufus (Linnaeus 1758) 327.8 ± 3.99 7.0 ± 0.22 2.1 ± 0.09
  Arion vulgaris (Moquin-Tandon 1855) 340.7 NA 6.6 NA 1.9 NA
  Arion distinctus (Mabille 1868) 366.3 NA 6.6 NA 1.8 NA
Helicidae Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758 1007.8 ± 11.43 12.8 ± 0.34 1.3 ± 0.02 2.4 ± 0.03
  Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus 1758) 744.2 ± 2.15 10.7 ± 0.52 1.4 ± 0.07 3.1 ± 0.01
  Cepaea hortensis (Müller 1774) 767.8 ± 5.41 10.9 ± 0.21 1.4 ± 0.03 4.1 ± 0.03
  Cepaea vindobonensis (Férrusac 1821) 1180.5 ± 11.92 13.8 ± 0.47 1.2 ± 0.05 5.3 ± 0.05
  Cornu aspersum (Müller 1774) 671.6 ± 6.15 10.5 ± 0.08 1.6 ± 0.003 2.0 ± 0.02
  Eobania vermiculata (Müller 1774) 1071.1 ± 11.31 11.1 ± 0.48 1.0 ± 0.05 3.7 ± 0.04
  Theba pisana (Müller 1774) 763.2 ± 2.68 8.5 ± 0.07 1.1 ± 0.01 4.1 ± 0.01
  Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus 1758) 847.9 ± 5.40 9.6 ± 0.16 1.1 ± 0.03 5.1 ± 0.03
  Helicigona lapicida (Linnaeus 1758) 614.2 ± 3.83 7.1 ± 0.08 1.2 ± 0.02 3.8 ± 0.02
  Isognomostoma isognomostomos (Schröter 1784) 634.0 ± 3.32 9.9 ± 0.17 1.6 ± 0.02 7.1 ± 0.03
Bradybaenidae Fruticicola fruticum (Müller 1774) 337.7 ± 6.42 9.8 ± 0.06 2.9 ± 0.04 1.8 ± 0.03
Cochlicellidae Cochlicella acuta (Müller 1774) 332.7 ± 4.10 5.7 ± 0.13 1.7 ± 0.06 2.4 ± 0.02
Helicodontidae Helicodonta obvoluta (Müller 1774) 610.1 ± 3.60 7.2 ± 0.29 1.2 ± 0.04 4.9 ± 0.03
Hygromiidae Helicella itala (Linnaeus 1758) 320.0 ± 3.58 8.0 ± 0.12 2.5 ± 0.01 2.5 ± 0.02
  Candidula intersecta (Poiret 1801) 248.3 NA 7.6 NA 3.1 NA 2.1 NA
  Xerolenta obvia (Menke 1828) 313.4 ± 3.67 8.9 ± 0.07 2.9 ± 0.06 5.5 ± 0.02
  Monachoides incarnatus (Müller 1774) 490.4 NA 7.3 NA 1.5 NA 3.6 NA
  Trochulus villosus (Studer 1789) 345.0 ± 1.60 7.9 ± 0.08 2.3 ± 0.02 2.7 ± 0.01
  Trochulus sericeus (Draparnaud 1801) 319.5 ± 0.63 7.3 ± 0.01 2.3 ± 0.01 3.5 ± 0.01
  Monacha cartusiana (Müller 1774) 347.4 ± 0.33 7.0 ± 0.31 2.0 ± 0.09 2.3 ± 0.002
  1. Mean values ± s.e. are presented. s.e. indicate inter-individual variation. NA not applicable (only one individual examined). Sample sizes are given in Additional file 3