Skip to main content

Table 3 Parameter estimates and relative likelihoods for models of mean-of-logs body size incorporating within-terminal standard error

From: Phylogenetic analyses suggest that diversification and body size evolution are independent in insects

Clade Model Sigma squared z0 a/ delta/alpha/lambda LnLik k AICc Delta AiCc from optimal model Akaike weights
Hexapoda BM 0.002403 1.749   −779.4 2 1562.7 21.031 0.00003
  EB 0.002404 1.748 −1e-06* −779.4 3 1564.7 23.051 0.00001
  delta 0.002196 1.766 1.129 −779.1 3 1564.3 22.627 0.00001
  SSP 0.002666 1.764 0.000591 −778.0 3 1562.1 20.434 0.00004
  lambda 0.001957 1.759 0.92093 −767.8 3 1541.7 0 0.9991
  WN 0.8985 1.946   −1057.3 2 2118.7 576.99 0.0000
Holometabola BM 0.002726 1.846   −515.4 2 1034.8 17.571 0.0002
  EB 0.002727 1.846 −1e-06* −515.4 3 1036.9 19.600 0.0001
  delta 0.001787 1.802 1.881 −511.2 3 1028.5 11.265 0.0035
  SSP 0.003613 1.830 0.001923 −510.7 3 1027.4 10.170 0.0061
  lambda 0.002138 1.845 0.89028 −505.6 3 1017.3 0 0.9901
  WN 0.6498 1.803   −611.9 2 1227.8 210.52 0.0000
Paraneoptera BM 0.001469 1.132   −117.0 2 238.2 0 0.3939
  EB 0.001518 1.130 −0.000111 −117.0 3 240.3 2.094 0.1382
  delta 0.001559 1.119 0.9031 −117.0 3 240.1 1.9781 0.1465
  SSP 0.001469 1.132 0.00 −117.0 3 240.3 2.0983 0.1379
  lambda 0.001368 1.139 0.9343 −116.7 3 239.7 1.5276 0.1835
  WN 0.5961 1.531   −147.4 2 299.0 60.78 0.0000
Polyneoptera BM 0.002121 2.759   −66.26 2 136.7 0.1955 0.2922
  EB 0.002121 2.759 −1e-06* −66.26 3 138.9 2.3961 0.0972
  delta 0.001389 2.822 2.186 −65.06 3 136.5 0 0.3221
  SSP 0.003247 2.812 0.002286 −65.60 3 137.6 1.081 0.1876
  lambda 0.002005 2.765 0.9636 −66.22 3 138.8 2.334 0.1003
  WN 0.5465 3.045   −72.66 2 149.5 12.99 0.0005
Palaeoptera BM 0.001485 2.918   −40.18 2 84.58 0 0.3195
  EB 0.002088 2.917 −0.001169 −40.06 3 86.57 1.991 0.1181
  delta 0.002322 2.938 0.5462 −39.51 3 85.46 0.8857 0.2052
  SSP 0.001485 2.918 0.00 −40.18 3 86.80 2.226 0.1050
  lambda 0.00119 2.928 0.8993 −39.30 3 85.05 0.4729 0.2522
  WN 0.7646 3.060   −74.55 2 153.3 68.73 0.0000
Entognatha BM 0.002414 1.074   −15.71 2 36.75 0 0.5003
  EB 0.01257 1.048 −0.006225 −15.16 3 39.31 2.561 0.1390
  delta 0.002921 1.070 0.6378 −15.58 3 40.16 3.407 0.0911
  SSP 0.002414 1.074 0.00 −15.71 3 40.42 3.667 0.0800
  lambda 0.002414 1.074 1 −15.71 3 40.42 3.667 0.0800
  WN 1.0335 0.888   −17.23 2 39.79 3.035 0.1097
  1. Models and relevant parameters are denoted as follows: BM: Brownian motion (Sigma squared: ML estimate of rate of the underlying size evolution, z0: ML estimate of value for the root state); EB: Early burst model (a: exponential rate scale for relationship through time); Delta: Pagel’s delta rate change through time model (delta: tree scaling parameter); SSP: Single stable peak Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model with centralizing tendency towards an optimum (alpha: strength of central attraction); lambda; Pagel’s lambda measuring deviation of inter-tip covariance matrix from expectations of BM (lambda: multiplication factor applied to the off-diagonal covariance matrix elements maximizing similarity to BM); WN: white noise non-phylogenetic model with all data drawn from a common distribution. Also given are log likelihood values of the observed data (LnLik), number of parameters (k) and AICc values, deviation from optimal model (Delta AiCc), and Akaike weights. Models in bold are the favoured models, either by virtue of lowest AICc scores or are those with fewest parameters within 2 AICc units of the lowest AICc scores. *denotes parameters estimated at the bounds placed on the optimization procedure i.e. their actual values may be smaller than given