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Fig. 3 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 3

From: Maternal care in Acanthosomatinae (Insecta: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae)—correlated evolution with morphological change

Fig. 3

Various forms of Pendergrast’s organ (PO) located on the abdominal venter of females of 11 species of Acanthosomatidae. Green arrow indicates presence of a well-developed PO on abdominal sternites VI and VII, white arrow indicates reduced PO. Scales in 0.5 mm, ab: lateral view, cl: ventral view. a, Planois gayi; b, Acrophyma cumingii; c, Ditomotarsus punctiventris; d, Sinopla perpunctatus; e, Elasmostethus kerzhneri; f, Lindbergicoris gramineus; g, Cyphostethus triastriatus; h, Acanthosoma expansum; i, L. hastatus; j, Acanthosoma haemorroidale angulatum; kl, Acanthosoma firmatum. Species generally display two pairs of elliptic POs on sternites VI and VII (e, g, h, i, j), which are occasionally fused into a single large area (b, c), or approach each other closely (a). In other species a single pair of large, rounded PO is present on sternite VII (f). Individuals of A. firmatum exhibits a gradual reduction of PO: either reduced in size on sternite VII (k) or lost one pair on sternite VI (l). S. perpunctatus only has a vestige of PO on sternite VII (d). We provided photo of a closely species, L. hastatus instead of L. similis due to unavailability of females of the latter species

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