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Table 1 Differential rates of fixation (R) of unique fusions and syntenic group disruptions (fissions) during the evolution of the analyzed lineages

From: Integration of molecular cytogenetics, dated molecular phylogeny, and model-based predictions to understand the extreme chromosome reorganization in the Neotropical genus Tonatia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

Lineage Time (myr) SE Fission/Fusions   R (changes/myr)   Comments
     Lower   Upper  
PGA to PA 1.7006 3.4345 1 −0.5756 0.5880 0.1947 Stasis
PA to PiA 3.9046 3.1613 0 0 0 0 Stasis
PiA to L/M 0.6135 2.9292 0 0 0 0 Stasis
L/M to M 3.0248 2.8037 1 4.5228 0.3306 0.1715 variable
L/M to L 10.1032 1.2038 0 0 0 0 Stasis
PiA to T 6.2324 2.7562 39 11.22 6.26 4.34 Evolution
T to TSA/TBI 12.6332 1.7908 0 – 1 0 – 0.0922 0 – 0.0791 0-0.0693 Stasis
PGA to GA 7.786 3.3742 2 0.4533 0.2568 0.1792 Stasis
GA to Aa 4.6205 3.2150 14 9.9609 3.03 1.7867 Evolution
A to ACA/AGEa 6.7802 2.0390 0 0 0 0 Stasis
  1. The time used corresponds to specific internodal distances in million years (myr) and the lower and upper values of R were calculated using the standard errors for the divergence time of each branch (SE). The two species of Tonatia as well as all Anoura species have the same karyotype
  2. Abbreviations as follows: Phyllostominae + Glossophaginae ancestor (PGA), Phyllostominae ancestor (PA), Glossophaginae ancestor (GA); Phyllostomini ancestor (PiA); Lophostoma + Mimon ancestor (L/M); genus Lophostoma (L), genus Mimon (M); genus Tonatia (T); genus Anoura (A); Tonatia bidens (TBI); Tonatia saurophila (TSA); Anoura caudifer (ACA); Anoura geoffroyii (AGE). The date estimates of the branches marked with an a were derived from RAG2 sequence data only.