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Table 1 Models of niche evolution relevant to different group-sets with their parameters and interpretation, indicating for each model whether the optimal niche value, θ, the intensity of random fluctuations in the evolutionary trajectory, σ2, and the strength of selection toward the optimal value, α, are modeled with one global parameter or with two or three parameters that are group-specific

From: Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

  Parameters  
Model θ σ2 α Interpretation for models
BM1 Global Global - Evolution is random
BMS Global Group-specific - Different groups have different rates of niche evolution
OU1 Global Global Global Niche evolution is directed toward an optimal value without being affected by different groups
OUM Group-specific Global Global Different groups have different optimal values
OUMA Group-specific Global Group-specific Different groups have different optimal values and strength of selection
OUMV Group-specific Group-specific Global Different groups have different optimal values and rates of niche evolution
OUMVA Group-specific Group-specific Group-specific Different groups have different optimal values, strength of selection and rates of niche evolution