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Table 3 Best-approximating home range and group size predictive models: fixed effects parameter estimates from best-approximating linear mixed-effects kinship models incorporating phylogenetic and within-species variance-covariance fit by maximum likelihood for: a) HR (residual error = 0.113) and b) GS (residual error: 0.045). Model fitting incorporates both fixed and random effects in parameter estimates

From: Identifying environmental versus phylogenetic correlates of behavioural ecology in gibbons: implications for conservation management of the world’s rarest ape

Coefficient Estimate SE z-value P-value
a) HR
 (Intercept) 1.03 0.22 4.66 <0.0001
 Group density −0.14 0.04 −3.19 0.001
 Mating system (1 = polygyny) 0.30 0.11 2.58 0.010
 Group size 0.99 0.40 2.49 0.013
b) GS
 (Intercept) 0.98 0.18 5.55 <0.0001
 Mating system (1 = polygyny) 0.22 0.03 6.85 <0.0001
 Annual precipitation −0.16 0.06 −2.96 0.003
 Annual mean temperature 0.005 0.003 1.59 0.110
  1. P-values <0.05 are shown in bold