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Table 2 Trait phylogenetic signals: results of tests for phylogenetic signal in two continuous traits of interest (home range and group size) and one control variable (body mass) using Pagel’s λ under maximum likelihood (ML-λ) and tests against models of no signal (0) or complete phylogenetic dependence (1)

From: Identifying environmental versus phylogenetic correlates of behavioural ecology in gibbons: implications for conservation management of the world’s rarest ape

Variable ML-λ Test χ 2 P-value
Body mass 0.9999 λ = 0 45.38 <0.0001
λ = 1 −0.01 1.0
Home range 0.9999 λ = 0 30.32 <0.0001
λ = 1 −0.004 1.0
Group size 0.9731 λ = 0 20.61 <0.0001
λ = 1 0.58 0.45