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Table 1 Results of taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses for a sample of 22 angiosperm families

From: Salt tolerance is evolutionarily labile in a diverse set of angiosperm families

Order Family Family size Known Halophytes Halophytes in family (%) Taxonomic pattern Family subtree size Species in subtree (%) Halophytes in subtree Halophytes in subtree (%) Halophytes sampled in subtree (%) Inferred origins NoTO NoTO (p) SSCD (p)
Apiales Apiaceae 3780 33 0.9   1082 28.6 26 2.4 78.8 22 1.2 0.00 0.00
Arecales Arecaceae 2361 35 1.5 more 415 17.6 19 4.6 54.3 15 1.3 0.06 0.00
Asterales Asteraceae 23600 267 1.1   4618 19.6 97 2.1 36.3 87 1.1 0.00 0.00
- Goodeniaceae 430 6 1.4   69 16.0 6 8.7 100 6 1.0 0.09 0.01
Brassicales Brassicaceae 3710 38 1.0   1355 36.5 21 1.5 55.3 19 1.1 0.00 0.00
Caryophyllales Amaranthaceae 2275 507 22.3 more 613 26.9 262 42.7 51.7 54 4.9 0.16 0.00
- Tamaricaceae 90 55 61.1 more 42 46.7 29 69.0 52.7 1 29.0 1.00 1.00
Cucurbitales Cucurbitaceae 960 14 1.5   247 25.7 9 3.6 64.3 8 1.1 0.14 0.02
Ericales Primulaceae 2590 14 0.5 fewer 546 21.1 8 1.5 57.1 5 1.6 0.65 0.55
Fagales Casuarinaceae 95 12 12.6 more 88 92.6 12 13.6 100 7 1.7 0.46 0.08
Gentianales Rubiaceae 13150 13 0.1 fewer 1393 10.6 7 0.5 53.8 7 1.0 0.09 0.01
Lamiales Acanthaceae 4000 18 0.5 fewer 498 12.5 9 1.8 50.0 5 1.8 0.75 0.54
- Lamiaceae 7173 27 0.4 fewer 941 13.1 14 1.5 51.9 11 1.3 0.14 0.05
Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae 5735 42 0.7 fewer 1047 18.3 16 1.5 38.1 14 1.1 0.03 0.00
- Rhizophoraceae 149 19 12.8 more 40 26.8 18 45.0 94.7 6 3.0 0.52 0.71
Myrtales Combretaceae 500 12 2.4 more 25 5.0 8 32.0 66.7 6 1.3 0.23 0.25
- Lythraceae 620 21 3.4 more 119 19.2 14 11.8 66.7 8 1.8 0.53 0.46
- Myrtaceae 4620 47 1.0   612 13.2 20 3.3 42.6 19 1.1 0.00 0.00
Poales Cyperaceae 5430 121 2.2 more 1087 20.0 57 5.2 47.1 52 1.1 0.00 0.00
- Juncaceae 430 22 5.1 more 124 28.8 12 9.7 54.5 8 1.5 0.31 0.45
- Poaceae 11160 335 3.0 more 2291 20.5 173 7.6 51.6 127 1.4 0.00 0.00
Rosales Rosaceae 2520 9 0.4 fewer 1010 40.1 8 0.8 88.9 8 1.0 0.05 0.05
  1. Family and order names are based on APG III [48]. Family size is the mean estimated number of species in the family reported on the APG III website [49]. The halophytes column lists the number of known halophytes species in each family. Family subtree size represents the number of taxa in the phylogenetic tree used for analysis, and halophytes in subtree is the number of known halophytes included in each family subtree. The halophytes sampled in subtree represents the percent of known halophytes that are present in each family subtree. The taxonomic pattern column identifies families with more or fewer halophytes than expected by chance based on the taxonomic analysis (see Methods). The results of the metrics used to distinguish evolutionary patterns of salt tolerance are presented. For the number of tips per origin (NoTO), p-values represent whether the average number of halophytes arising from each inferred gain of salt tolerance is smaller expected under Brownian motion (p < 0.05). For the sum of sister clade differences (SSCD), p-values represent whether halophytes are less clustered than expected under Brownian motion (p < 0.05). Test statistics that are significantly different to the null model are presented in bold. Significant results for Tamaricaceae are italicized to highlight that this is the only significantly conserved pattern of salt tolerance, where significantly more tips per gain and a significantly smaller SSCD