Genome alignment showing mutations associated with loss of the AND function. Aligned genome sequences of genotypes on the lines of descent in 46 populations, showing the mutations that were associated with the loss of the ability to perform the AND function. The immediate parent of each genotype could perform AND; thus, one or more of the mutations (highlighted in yellow) caused the loss of that ability. Each letter denotes a particular instruction; a red letter indicates a point mutation, whereas green letters and blue asterisks are insertion and deletion mutations, respectively. In three cases (bold run ID), the AND function was lost and regained multiple times, and only the first loss is shown. Several sequences have been trimmed owing to their length, and they show only the relevant portions of the genomes.