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Figure 4 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 4

From: Genetically integrated traits and rugged adaptive landscapes in digital organisms

Figure 4

Snapshot of phenotypic variation present in two populations at two time points. Each point represents an individual organism; the height of the point shows its fitness in the +EQU environment, while the other two axes show the number of times it performs the EQU and AND functions. Blue: organisms from a population evolving in the +EQU environment. Red: organisms from a population evolving in the +EQU/-AND environment. Left: organisms that evolved in the +EQU/-AND environment (red) had lower fitness after 5,000 updates, when they were measured in the +EQU environment, compared to individuals that evolved in the +EQU environment (blue). Right: By the end of the experiment (100,000 updates), organisms that evolved in the +EQU/-AND environment (red) had attained higher fitness in the +EQU environment than those that evolved in the +EQU environment (blue).

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