Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA geographic patterns: population level microsatellite clustering (a) and membership in main mtDNA clades (b). Colored bars and pie charts indicate population membership in six STRUCTURE clusters (a), or nine main mtDNA clades (b), respectively. Shaded area indicates the approximate range of the Apodemia mormo species complex, modified from [95,38,96-98]. Solid dots represent locations where specimens of the A. mormo species complex were collected, and hollow dots indicate locations where outgroups were collected. Non-parenthetical numbers correspond to location numbers (additional file 1: Table S1) and parenthetical numbers indicate the number of specimens per site per dataset. In the case of mtDNA, several groups of populations belonging to the same clade were combined, and sample size for these groups correspond to those populations combined. Grey, non-parenthetical numbers indicate locations for which data was not collected for that dataset. Overall STRUCTURE plot and a simplified tree from additional file 1: Figure S1 are shown in insets. Numbers in the overall STRUCTURE plot correspond to groupings in additional file 1: Figure S1. Divergent A. mormo haplotypes h1472 and 0366 (Figure 1) were found in locality numbers 55 and 59. The population of A. mormo langei at Antioch Dunes (locality 11) is marked with an asterisk.