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Table 4 Results of the Likelihood-ratio test comparing models differentiating λ and μ to models with equal birth-death parameters

From: Amino acid transporter expansions associated with the evolution of obligate endosymbiosis in sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera: sternorrhyncha)

  Model λ Background x 10 3 λ Sternorrhyncha x 10 3 μ Background x 10 3 μ Sternorrhyncha x 10 3 -ML # Parameters Likelihood ratio p -value
APC Single λ 1.2177 - - - 34.31 1 0.06 0.843
  Single λ + μ 1.2533 - 1.0615 - 34.28 2   
AAAP Multiple λ 0.3631 6.849 - - 35.01 2 12.51 0.002
  Multiple λ + μ 2.88 x 10-9 1.110 0.6341 6.03 x 10-3 28.76 4   
  1. For APC, the estimated parameters are global across the phylogeny. For AAAP, the parameters were rates were allowed to shift in sternorrhynchan species. Data generated with CAFE. λ represents the probability of gene duplication/loss (Single/Multiple λ), or gene duplication only (Single/Multiple λ + μ) per gene per million years. μ represents the probability of gene loss per gene per million years.