Simulations of gene family evolution in Hemiptera. Null distributions of net expansion or contraction, duplications, and losses of two amino acid transporter gene families within Sternorrhyncha from 1000 simulations of a birth-death model of evolution using GenPhyloData . Expansion or contraction was obtained by subtracting the number of losses from the number of duplications detected in Sternorrhyncha in a single replicate. A. Expansion or contraction in APC and D: AAAP in; B. duplications in APC and E: in AAAP; C. losses in APC and F: in AAAP. The thick black lines represent the values inferred using Notung.