Cervid phylogeny and life history. a) Phylogenetic relationships, maximal recorded life expectancy, onset of maturity, and average adult body mass of Candiacervus, Megaloceros, and relatives based on [17,20,23,28-35]. Cervid species studied are indicated by black circles. The trichotomy of the fallow deer (Dama) and its extinct relatives illustrates the unresolved nature of this well-supported clade. Body mass values are average. b) Linear regression relating maximum recorded longevity to body mass in cervids, and observed maxima within available samples of fossil species. Shaded region represents the 95% confidence interval. In cases in which unambiguous longevity data for wild animals were not available, data of captive specimens have been used.