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Table 2 PGLS models of the effect of colony size and nest site on paternity traits across 22 Vespine taxa

From: Colony size is linked to paternity frequency and paternity skew in yellowjacket wasps and hornets

Model Response factors a λ b estimate t p r c
λ= ML Relatedness (r) log 10 ( size ) + 0.24(na,0.83) −0.14 −3.89 <0.001 0.67(0.3, 0.86)
nest site −0.11 −2.27 0.036 0.46(0.01, 0.76)
Paternity frequency (k) log 10 ( size ) + 0(na,0.82) 0.86 3.94 <0.001 0.67(0.31, 0.86)
nest site 0.96 1.53 0.14 0.33(−0.15, 0.68)
Paternity skew (B −1) log 10 ( size ) + 0.35(na,na) 12.08 3.91 <0.01 0.72(0.31, 0.91)
nest site 3.13 0.63 0.53 0.17(−0.40, 0.64)
Relatedness (r) k + 1(na,na) −0.04 −6.03 <0.001 0.85(0.58, 0.95)
B −1 −0.004 −2.85 0.014 0.61(0.11, 0.86)
λ= upper 95% CI Relatedness (r) log 10 ( size ) + 0.83 −0.13 −3.07 0.007 0.58(0.16, 0.82)
nest site −0.08 −1.30 0.211 0.29(−0.20, 0.66)
Paternity frequency (k) log 10 ( size ) + 0.82 0.92 3.57 0.002 0.63(0.25, 0.85)
nest site 0.57 0.66 0.51 0.15(−0.33,0.57)
Paternity skew (B −1) log10(size)d + 1 8.81 2.13 0.052 d 0.49(−0.05, 0.81)
nest site 1.45 0.24 0.81 0.06(−0.49, 0.58)
Relatedness (r) k + 1 −0.04 −6.03 <0.001 0.85(0.58, 0.95)
B −1 −0.004 −2.85 0.014 0.61(0.11, 0.86)
  1. abold factors are significant at p<0.05.
  2. bvalues in the λ = ML model show the maximum likelihood estimate of λ and the 95% confidence interval. “na” means the estimate is outside of the bounds (0, 1).
  3. ceffect size calculated from t-values and sample size using compute.es package in R [93]. Parenthetical values are 95% confidence intervals.
  4. deffect of colony size on paternity skew is significant if nest site is omitted as a cofactor (t = 2.23, p = 0.042).