Intracolony relatedness, effective paternity and colony size in Vespine wasps. Each point represents mean trait values for a species (data shown in Figure 3 and Additional file 2). This figure includes the 21 species with relatedness and colony size data used in the analyses shown in Table 2, as well as three species (Vespula atropilosa, V. rufa and Dolichovespula norwegica) that were omitted due to lack of phylogenetic information (plotted as diamonds). Model results describing statistical relationships are reported in Table 2. Notably, Vespa velutina is not depicted due to lack of data on relatedness (only paternity frequency was reported), though this species has large mean colony size, high paternity frequency, and is an aerial nester.