Phylogeny and trait data used in comparative analyses. The rate-smoothed phylogeny includes support values from 1000 integrated bootstraps in a single ML run using RAxML 7.3.0. Intracolony relatedness (r) was calculated from k
. Paternity frequency (k) is the mean number of observed patrilines present in each colony. Colony size estimates are the arithmetic mean number of adult workers collected from mature colonies. Nest site values are the fraction of observed nests that are in enclosed sites (ie subterranean, tree and man-made structural cavities), as opposed to exposed, aerial nests. The B skew index was averaged across all multiple-paternity colonies. Data come from references ,,,,,-; for details see Additional file 2.