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Table 1 Hypotheses and predictions

From: The population genetics of wild chimpanzees in Cameroon and Nigeria suggests a positive role for selection in the evolution of chimpanzee subspecies

Models of population history Patterns of genetic differentiation Demographic history
mtDNA Microsatellites
Panmixia One cluster of haplotypes spanning entire study region; Majority of genetic variation found between individuals No evidence of discernable population structure into k > 2 demes All individuals equally divergent from one another
Isolation-by-distance Positive linear relationship between genetic and geographic distance Positive linear relationship between genetic and geographic distance Populations closer to one another share a more recent relationship than those more distant for one another
Population structure with complete isolation Haplotypes cluster into discrete and geographically distinct groups Individuals cluster into discrete, geographically distinct groups No evidence of recent migration between populations, but ancestral polymorphism may still be present
Population structure with ongoing migration Haplotypes cluster into geographically distinct groups with overlap Individuals cluster into geographically distinct groups with some individuals showing evidence of admixture Evidence of recent migration between populations that is distinguishable from ancestral polymorphism