Nymphalid ground plan and Kallima inachus leaf wing pattern. (a) When resting, K. inachus folds its fore- and hind wings and displays a leaf-like pattern to potential predators. (b) Nymphalid ground plan: This scheme consists of 11 elements. The three pairs of symmetry pattern elements include the proximal (p) and distal (d) bands designated as basal (B, blue), central (C, red), and border (BO, green) elements. Four additional elements are designated as root (R, light blue), submarginal and marginal (M, orange), discal spots (DS, yellow) and a serial array of eye spots (ESs, concentric rings). (c) Male ventral wings, resembling transverse leaf venation across fore and hind wings. (d) The leaf venation pattern is composed of several pattern elements representing a main vein and right and left lateral veins (highlighted with yellow, orange, and pink lines, respectively). (e) The Nymphalid ground plan of the K. inachus leaf pattern analysed in this study.