Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup H8. Numbers along links refer to substitutions scored relative to rCRS . Transversions are further specified; ins and del denote insertions and deletions of nucleotides, respectively; symbol < denotes parallel mutations, back mutations are underlined. Time estimates (in kya) shown along links next to clade labels are based on the complete mtDNA genome clock (given with 95% CI and marked in blue) and the coding region clock (given with the associated standard error and marked in red). Established haplogroup labels are shown in black; red are newly identified haplogroups in the present study.