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Table 5 F ST (Below diagonal- ARLEQUIN software) and D EST (Above diagonal- SMOGD software) for the 16 geographical populations

From: Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

  1 (N) 2 (N) 3 (C) 4 (S) 5 (C/N) 6 (C) 7 (N) 8 (C) 9 (C) 10 (N) 11 (C) 12 (C) 13 (C) 14 (C) 15 (N) 16 (N)
1 (N) / 0.056 0.079 0.247 0.043 0.066 0.093 0.084 0.063 0.001 0.084 0.091 0.018 0.051 0.057 0.074
2 (N) 0.033 *** / 0.058 0.225 0.001 0.076 0.001 0.007 0.075 0.019 0.065 0.078 0.009 0.086 0.090 0.001
3 (C) 0.041 *** 0.036 *** / 0.213 0.001 < 0.0001 0.037 0.004 –0.010 0.007 0.015 <0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0002 0.105 0.060
4 (S) 0.163 *** 0.167 *** 0.141 *** / 0.236 0.235 0.245 0.177 0.234 0.293 0.244 0.141 0.142 0.148 0.290 0.242
5 (C/N) 0.037 * –0.007 ns 0.026 * 0.196 *** / 0.002 –0.0001 0.002 0.007 0.0001 0.016 0.024 <0.0001 0.037 0.064 0.009
6 (C) 0.042 * 0.056 *** 0.010 ns 0.181 *** 0.056 *** / 0.012 0.006 0.003 0.023 0.019 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.011 0.087 0.034
7 (N) 0.045 *** 0.006 ns 0.033 *** 0.157 *** 0.004 ns 0.062 *** / 0.019 0.050 0.006 0.041 0.081 0.008 0.066 0.083 0.005
8 (C) 0.044 *** 0.020 *** 0.014 * 0.130 *** 0.016 ns 0.034 * 0.022 * / 0.012 0.018 0.017 0.008 < 0.0001 0.021 0.118 0.012
9 (C) 0.049 *** 0.051 *** –0.008 ns 0.175 *** 0.056 *** 0.024 ns 0.059 *** 0.025 * / 0.003 0.005 –0.007 < 0.0001 0.001 0.116 0.062
10 (N) 0.016 * 0.029 *** 0.021 * 0.163 *** 0.010 ns 0.032 * 0.021 ns 0.027 * 0.035 * / 0.021 0.002 0.010 0.013 0.081 0.009
11 (C) 0.037 *** 0.030 *** 0.008 * 0.154 *** 0.031 * 0.013 ns 0.031 *** 0.012 * 0.013 ns 0.025 * / 0.005 –0.008 0.005 0.111 0.047
12 (C) 0.046 * 0.060 *** 0.002 ns 0.128 *** 0.053 ns 0.005 ns 0.060 * 0.023 ns 0.002 ns 0.016 ns 0.026 * / 0.003 0.020 0.112 0.046
13 (C) 0.037 * 0.030 ns –0.015 ns 0.139 *** 0.029 ns 0.007 ns 0.029 ns –0.005 ns –0.009 ns 0.029 ns –0.013 ns 0.011 ns / –0.0002 0.048 0.025
14 (C) 0.020 * 0.036 *** –0.010 ns 0.133 *** 0.043 ns 0.030 ns 0.043 * 0.018 * –0.010 ns 0.030 ns 0.010 ns 0.026 ns –0.012 ns / 0.109 0.065
15 (N) 0.034 *** 0.059 *** 0.064 *** 0.195 *** 0.055 *** 0.067 *** 0.055 *** 0.064 *** 0.081 *** 0.050 *** 0.063 *** 0.073 *** 0.051 * 0.064 *** / 0.082
16 (N) 0.032 *** –0.001 ns 0.045 *** 0.166 *** –0.003 ns 0.059 *** 0.008 ns 0.012 * 0.068 *** 0.022 *** 0.036 *** 0.060 *** 0.037 * 0.047 *** 0.058 *** /
  1. These estimators were only computed where more than 5 samples were available. 1: Niassa, 2: Chobe, 3: Kruger, 4: Hluhluwe-iMfolozi (bold), 5: Hwange, 6: Sengwe, 7: Victoria Falls, 8: Malilangwe, 9: Crooks Corner, 10: Mana Pools, 11: Gonarezhou, 12: Limpopo, 13: Manguana, 14: Gorongosa, 15: Marromeu, 16: Okanvango Delta. Cluster affiliation of each sampling locality is also indicated in the table as follow: (N) for the Northern cluster, (C) for the Central cluster and (S) for the Southern cluster. Here, one SL is considered to belong to one cluster if there are more than 50% of SL’s individuals that belongs to this cluster. *indicates P < 0.05, **indicates P < 0.005, ***indicates P < 0.0005; nsindicates non-significant.