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Table 6 Diversification dynamics of Calisto as reconstructed by the R package DDD

From: Causes of endemic radiation in the Caribbean: evidence from the historical biogeography and diversification of the butterfly genus Calisto(Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Satyrini)

            Analyses account 8 missing species
  0 0 K0 1 1 K1 t_shift log-LH Akaike weight 0 0 K0 1 1 K1 t_shift log-LH Akaike weight
  Calisto diversification                   
CR0 constant λ and μ (birth-death) 0.07 0 - - - - - −124.437 0.00 0.08 0 - - - - - −123.853 0.00
CR1 − declining as div-dep. No μ (DDL) 0.175 - 40.119 - - - - −118.715 0.03 - - - - - - - - -
CR2 div-dep with μ (DDL + E) depend in λ 0.163 0 43.055 - - - - −118.926 0.01 0.163 0 54.745 - - - - −118.774 0.02
SR0 Yule-2-rate 0.122 - 36.641 0.3 - K0 13.567 −116.243 0.12 0.122 - 45.321 0.298 - K1 13.567 −116.487 0.16
*SR1 shift in K 0.306 0 13.132 λ 0 μ 0 36.62 13.567 −113.877 0.48 0.295 0 14.456 λ 0 μ 0 45.466 13.567 −114.384 0.47
SR2 shift in K and μ 0.306 0 13.13 0 0 36.617 13.567 −113.878 0.18 0.3 0.006 14.342 0 0 45.355 13.567 −114.369 0.18
SR3 shift in K and λ 0.322 0 13.025 0.298 0 36.713 13.567 −113.863 0.18 0.289 0 14.507 0.298 0 45.414 13.567 −114.382 0.17
KI1 shift in K in subclade 0.133 0 27.172 0 0 Inf. 13.567 −118.634 0.00 0.139 0 37.103 0 0 Inf. 13.567 −121.355 0.00
KI2 shift in K and μ in subclade 0.133 0 27.159 0 0 Inf. 13.567 −118.651 0.00 0.139 0 36.965 0 0 Inf. 13.567 −121.371 0.00
KI3 shift in K and λ in subclade 0.164 0 25.591 0.115 0 Inf. 13.567 −118.319 0.00 0.17 0 34.419 0.114 0 Inf. 13.567 −120.853 0.00
KI4 shift in K, λ and μ in subclade 0.162 0 25.779 0.111 0 Inf. 13.567 −118.302 0.00 0.17 0 34.434 0.114 0 Inf. 13.567 −120.852 0.00
  Hispaniolan lineages diversification                   
CR0 constant λ and μ (birth-death) 0.056 0 - - - - - −85.5 0.00 0.066 0 - - - - - −84.936 0.00
CR1 − declining as div-dep. No μ (DDL) 0.186 - 24.646 - - - - −78.905 0.19 - - - - - - - - -
CR2 div-dep with μ (DDL + E) depend in λ 0.165 0 26.665 - - - - −80.231 0.02 0.166 0 36.387 - - - - −79.968 0.04
SR0 Yule-2-rate 0.141 - 24 0.335 - K0 12.843 −77.021 0.17 0.141 - 32 0.347 - K1 12.843 −77.219 0.20
*SR1 shift in K 0.33 0.001 11.991 λ 0 μ 0 23.918 14.352 −75.372 0.32 0.339 0.001 15.518 λ 0 μ 0 31.942 12.843 −75.477 0.42
SR2 shift in K and μ 0.318 0.001 11.964 0 0 24 14.352 −75.219 0.14 0.327 0 15.593 0 0 32.023 12.844 −75.427 0.16
SR3 shift in K and λ 0.333 0 12.98 0.245 0 24.135 12.843 −75.09 0.16 0.295 0.001 15.743 0.355 0 31.948 12.843 −75.372 0.17
  Cuban lineage diversification                   
CR0 constant λ and μ (birth-death) 0.09 0 - - - - - −40.903 0.01 - - - - - - - - -
CR1 − declining as div-dep. No μ (DDL) 0.27 - 14.568 - - - - −38.31 0.14 - - - - - - - - -
CR2 div-dep with μ (DDL + E) depend in λ 0.219 0 17.498 - - - - −39.235 0.02 - - - - - - - - -
*SR0 Yule-2-rate 0.099 - 14 0.493 - K 0 10.475 −35.409 0.35 - - - - - - - - -
SR1 shift in K 0.502 0.012 2.323 0 0 13.644 11.894 −35.377 0.13 - - - - - - - - -
*SR2 shift in K and λ 0.426 0.024 1.864 λ 0 0 13.982 13.567 −33.981 0.20 - - - - - - - - -
SR3 shift in K and λ 0.162 0.009 1.884 0.466 0 13.718 13.573 −34.287 0.15 - - - - - - - - -
  1. The best models for each type of analyses, which include extinction and diversity-dependent processes, are highlighted in bold text and with an asterisk (*). λ is speciation rate, μ is extinction rate, K is species “carrying capacity” or a parameter analogous to it only in DDL. The estimated parameters to the right were calculated accounting missing taxa (8 species). The DDL model is not able to incorporate missing taxa whereas the Cuban clade in this study included all described species. A shift in K is recovered as the best explanation for the diversification patterns of Calisto and the Hispaniolan lineages. Yule-2-rate or a shift in K and μ are the best models to explain the diversification of the Cuban clade alone.